- 1 Introduction To Advanced Finishes
- 2 Textile Finishing
- 3 Advanced Functional Finishes
- 4 Conclusion:
Introduction To Advanced Finishes
In today’s world technology in each sector is growing up rapidly. The things which were impossible to do in past are now can be done easily with the use of technology. All this is possible due to advancement in Science and Technology. When we talk about textiles, it is now no more the sector only related to the manufacturing of yarns and fabrics, in today’s time textile sector and innovations in it are far beyond the imagination.
Now one can easily use a mobile phone and its features just by swiping on the fabric, all this is possible due to advancement in the textile sector. When we think of finishing fabric the things which come to mind is crease resistant finish, heat setting etc.
All the basics finish but now with high desires of customer one is demanding the fabric or textile product which is having multiple advantages and which is suitable according to the end use of the fabric like the fabric must be anti-microbial, it must smell good etc.
And many more such desires of the customer results in the development of the advances textile finishes, which we can apply to the textile material in order to enhance its quality and usability.
So all the advanced functional finishes are discussed in this paper.
Keywords :(Technology, Textile finishes, Anti- microbial, Customer)
Finishing is the term for a multitude of processes and treatments which a fabric may undergo after it has been made and colored(dyed or printed).
The finishing process imparts the final and aesthetic, chemical and mechanical properties of the fabric as per the end use requirements.
Finishing majorly depends upon the end use of the fabric. For example: if we want fabric for firefighter then we must have to treat the fabric with the fire-resistant finish. So that it will help firefighter to wear the fabric and work in the fire conditions.
Finishing gives the following advantages:
- Improve the appearance of the fabric.
- Improve feel of the fabric.
- Improves the wearing quality of the fabric.
- It covers the fault of the original cloth.
- It enhances the appearance of the fabric.
- It increases the product demand in the market as it makes the fabric looks good.
Classification of Finishes
The textile finish can be classified in several ways. A person who is concerned with the end product usually categories finishes as aesthetic finishes and functional finishes. Aesthetic finish is all about the appearance of the fabric while the functional finish is the one in which the performance of the fabric is improved under specific end use conditions.
A person concerned with the textile processing will categories finishing as chemical finishing and mechanical finishing.
Finishing is also categorized by their degree of performance as permanent, durable, semi-durable and temporary.
The most commonly used chemicals for finishing are:
|Finishing agents||Chemical in involved|
|Stiffening agents||Starches, Polyvinyl Alcohol(PVA), Carboxy Methyl Cellulose etc.|
|Softening agents||Glycerin, Turkey Red Oil, Cationic, Non-ionic, Anionic, Reactive softeners, Pe emulsion, Silicon Emulsion.|
|Weighting agents||Gypsum, Sulphate of Ca and Mg, Lead, Zn, Chlorides of Mg, China clay etc.|
|Antiseptic agents||Alum, Boric acid, Phenol, Borax etc.|
Advanced Functional Finishes
Functional finishing is all about improving the performance of the fabric for the specific end use conditions.
Following are the functional finishes which will be discussed further:
3-Insect repellent finish
5-Fire protective finishes.
6-Water Oil repellent finishes
7-UV protection finishes
Skin Care Finishes
Human skin is very sensitive, it requires good moisture in order to have good smoothness. So it is possible to take care of the skin with the help of textile finish. So the main objective of skin finishes are:
- Providing moistening effect to the skin.
- Anti-inflammatory effect.
- To whiten the skin.
- Helps in anti-aging
- Improving the blood circulation.
- Soothing and rejuvenation.
The fabric is treated with the following:
- Vitamin A, D, E
- Microencapsulated natural oils- avocado, peppermint, lemon, passion fruit.
Mechanism of skin care finishes:
Now it is possible to get vitamins from the fabric itself, no one needs to go in the sun to get vitamins. The fabric itself will release vitamin in the body.
During body movement active ingredients slowly released from the fabric in the body. In this way, skin care finishes mechanism works.
Application of the finish:
Evaluation of finish:
- Qualitative evaluation- rating by a panel
- Quantitative assessment- add-on |retention
- Chemical analysis- instrumental, FTIR.
- Performance behavior- hand tags of brands
The microbial attacks on textiles results in:
- Odor formation.
- Strength reduction.
- Quality loss.
Today the finishes of textile help in fighting against these microbial attacks. This finish helps in the following:
- Avoid cross-infection of pathogenic micro-organism
- Arrest metabolism in microbes and reduce foul odor.
- Safeguard textile from staining, discoloration, and deterioration.
The fabric is treated with the chemicals which fight against the microbes and the evaluation can be done using the following test methods:
- Qualitative evaluation- AATCC 147
- Quantitative assessment-AATCC 100
- Odor-free- rating by a panel.
- Performance behavior- hand tags of brands.
Antimicrobial test methods:
|Test method||Purpose of test
|AATCC 30||Mildew and rot resistance in textile|
|AATCC 174||Antimicrobial activity assessment of carpets|
|SN 195924||Germ count method|
|SN 195920||Agar diffusion plate test|
|JIS Z 2911||Test for fungus resistance.|
Insect repellent finishes:
The textile product can save a person from the insects in the surrounding. The main objective of this finishes are:
- Protects a person from mosquito bites.
- Protects from some common flies.
The chemistry involved in the finishing process:
The chemicals which are used in the finishing process are:
- DEET- Di Ethyl Meta Toluamide, Allethrin
- Microcapsules of natural oils can also be used.
Mosquito repellent- Evaluation
- Cage test
- Cone test
The human being gets attracted towards the things with the help of senses. So sensory perceptions basically include the following:
- Eye- color and design for aesthetic appeal
- Skin- feel and comfort wearing performance
- Nose- odor and freshness of feel-good factor.
It is possible to impart finishes which will give fresh fragrance to the fabric and such finishes are also known as fragrance finishes. So major advantages of microencapsulated fragrances imparted to the textiles are:
- Controlled release during washing.
- Masking sweat smell when rubbed during wearing.
- Therapeutic value- aromatherapy
|Citrus||Lemon, Orange, Citronella, Decyl at|
|Floral||Phenethyl salicylate, Nonyl acetate, Anisyl acetate, Hydroxy citronellal, Rose absolute, Costus oil.|
|Fruity||Benzyl acetate, Allyl butyrate, Amyl acetate, Isobutyl isobutyrate, Allyl Butyrate, Benzyl benzoate|
|Vanilla||Acetanisole, Anisyl acetate|
Fire protective finishes:
It is very important to have fire safety everywhere we see the fire extinguishers along with it human clothes also must be fire resistant so that in case of fire the life of a human being can be saved and it is more important for the firefighter people.
So fire protective finishes help I protecting the human life from fire. It reduces the flame spread also the fire finished fabric minimizes the rate development of fire on to the fabric.
Mechanism of fire protective finish:
- Increase decomposition temperature
- Decrease amount of combustible gases.
- Promote char formation
- Prevent excess of oxygen to the flame.
- Increase combustion temperature.
Chemical composition for the finish:
- Boric acid \ Borax
- Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphorium chloride (THPC)
- Phosphoric Acid derivatives
Flame Retardant – Evaluation
- LOI(Laminating Oxygen Index)
- Vertical flammability test
- 45-degree flammability test
- Horizontal flammability test
Water-Oil repellent Finishes:
The main objective of such finishes are as follows:
- The drop of water-oil should not spread on the surface and should not wet the fabric.
- Drop should stay on the surface and easily drip off
- Maintain air permeability or breathability.
- Water droplets should not penetrate into the fabric but perspiration should.
The chemistry involved in the finishing:
- Silicon-based water repellents
- Paraffin wax-based water repellents.
- Fatty acid based water repellents.
- Nanoparticle for superhydrophobicity
- Fluorinated water oil repellents
- Prevent oily fluids from wetting treated textiles.
- Protect textiles from both dry and wet soil.
- Reduce free energy at fiber surfaces
- Minimize internal cohesive interaction of liquid
- Exhibit low interactions with liquid and fiber interface.
Water-Oil protection- Tests
|Test method||Summary description|
|AATCC 22- Water repellence spray test||Water spray on the surface are f treated substrate produces the wetted pattern. The size of the wetted pattern is compared to the standard chart. The ratings is assigned to 0, 50,70,80,90,100|
|AATCC 35 – Water resistance test||Water is sprayed in treated fabric backed by a weighted blotted paper for 5 minutes. This test method measures the treated fabric’s resistance to penetration to rainwater penetration.|
|AATCC 42 Water resistance impact penetration test||A volume of water is sprayed and measures the treated fabric’s resistance to penetration of water by the impact.|
|AATCC 127- Water resistance hydrostatic pressure test||Treated fabric exposed to hydrostatic pressure until 3 points of leakage appear. This test method measures the fabric resistance to penetration of water under the hydrostatic pressure.|
UV protection finish:
The effect of UV radiation on human health are as follows:
- Triggers Vitamin D
- Helps some skin conditions
- Helps to improvised our mind.
- Major cause of skin cancer
- Causes skin aging
- Causes sunburn
- Damages eyes
So UV finishes to the fabric helps the wearer to fight against the dangerous UV radiations. So the UV stabilizers or absorbers has following special properties:
- Absorbs in UV radiation region.
- Durable to repeated washing
- Nonskin irritant
- Compatible with textile application procedures.
- Available for both cellulosic and synthetic.
- Prevents detrimental effect of UV on ozone.
- Sensitive dyes
- Prevents yellowing of Indigo-dyed denim.
Sun protection evaluation:
- Sun protection factor-SPF 30+
- UV protection factor- UPF 30
- Erythema Damage Factor- Rating 1 to 10
- Shade change in Denim- rating 1 to 5
Control moisture balance between the garment and the skin to keep the body temperature constant.
- From the skin
- From outside of the textile
This finish includes the benefits as:
- Moisture management for regulation of body climate.
- Avoid the risk of Hypothermia or overheating.
- Hydrophilic handle for wear comfort
- The anti-static effect to prevent the textile from clinging.
A short note of Specialty finishes:
These finishes can be given to the fabrics in order to absorb smells also some finishes to enhance the color of the fabric. A short note is discussed below:
Smell absorbent | repellent:
- Tobacco smoke
- Kitchen smell
- Unpleasant body smells
- Environmental odors
Color enhancers| Bloomers:
- Achieve extra dark shades.
- Absorb maximum light
- Multiple internal refractions
Hence we can say that with the help of multiple finishes we can enhance the properties of the fabrics and we can use it in the sector according to its end use. Using of functional finished fabrics helping people to get protected from UV rays, microbes etc. Also, such finishes are given to the fabric protecting our soldiers and firefighters from different hazards too.
In future, we can see some textile finished products which will greatly help our military armed force and all the other people.