- 1 Introduction To Baby Diapers
- 2 Diaper Dermatitis
- 3 What’s in Disposable Diapers?
- 4 Mother’s Opinion About Baby Diaper:
- 5 Preparation Of Leaf Extracts
- 6 Separation Of The Compounds
- 7 What Has Peppermint In It?
- 8 Analysis Of Essential Oil
- 9 Scope Of Study
- 10 Conclusion
As Modern moms are more relay on baby diapers, baby diapers are designed to hygienically catch and hold urine and feces voided by children until the diaper can be changed. The widespread use of baby diapers has been accompanied by a marked reduction in skin irritation and a decrease in the spread of infectious diseases. Nappy rash or diaper dermatitis (also known as napkin dermatitis or diaper rash) is the common term used to encompass a wide range of inflammatory processes that occur in the area covered by a diaper. Diaper dermatitis is probably the most common cutaneous disorder of infancy and early childhood. Because most diaper rash is treated conservatively at home.
Textiles have always played a central role in the evolution of human culture by being at the forefront of both technological and artistic development. The protective aspects of textile have provided the most textile ground for innovative developments. The consumers are now increasingly aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties.
Products derived from plants may potentially control microbial growth in diverse situations and in the specific case of disease treatment, numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials and the mechanisms involved in microbial growth inhibition, either separately or associated with conventional antimicrobials. Mint extract investigated for its antibacterial activity. Mint extract at different concentrations was active against all tested bacteria.
Thus, in this present work, medicinal plant i.e. Mint with emphasis on their antimicrobial properties is reviewed. It is the need of the hour to control the growth of microbes in diapers by incorporating suitable antimicrobial agents. In spite of the availability of numerous antimicrobials for textile applications, herbal antimicrobials are preferred because they were non-toxic, non-allergic, eco-friendly. This paper gives a review of the scope of natural variants in the field of antimicrobial finishes.
Introduction To Baby Diapers
According to 2015 baby, diaper market report, along with the increase in the population of working women, parenting and childcare needs have also changed. Most diapers have high absorption property, which reduces the risk of soiling clothes and enhances convenience for parents such as during travel.
These diapers have been gaining preference over traditional cloth diapers, which require frequent washing and does not provide the convenience of easy disposal. In addition, diapers reduce discomfort and the chances of developing rashes caused by continuous wetness. They are also formulated to prevent the breeding of germs, including bacteria. In spite of the availability of numerous antimicrobials for textile applications, herbal antimicrobials are preferred because they are non-toxic, non-allergic, & eco-friendly.
Essential oils are extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants that are natural concentrated aromatic liquid products obtained by steam distillation or solvent extraction [1,2]. They contain several chemical compounds exhibiting different biological properties and activities. It can reduce pathogens and decrease the use of synthetic and semi-synthetic antimicrobial compounds .
Mints (Mentha spp.) are famous aromatic and medicinal herb that is used in traditional and folk medicines in the world for the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Mentha genus contains about 25 species and some hybrids belong to the Lamiaceae family . Mints contain volatile components, flavonoids, organic acids, quinones, such as for the digestive system, central nervous system, respiratory system [5, 6]. It was used in antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or anesthesia .
Mint is one amongst the herbs that has it all. It grows like a wild plant but is absolutely safe for use. Mentha Piperita is the scientific botanical name of the mint plant. In the common languages of India i.e. in Hindi, it is called as Pudina. Mint acts as a cooling sensation to the skin and helps in dealing with skin irritations. Peppermints are much more successful as a medicinal herb than the spearmint. Peppermint was actually created through a combination of spearmint and water mint.
While there are a variety of factors that contribute to rash, the most common reason is excessive moisture against the skin (Boiko, 1997). Usually, a baby will feel a wet cloth diaper because it can be hard to avoid the wetness. Cloth diapers are usually changed more often. Many parents leave disposable diapers on their baby too long. There is urine in the diaper and bacteria in the urine. When the ammonia in urine mixes with the plastic, the baby’s skin does not get a chance to breathe and the bacteria can grow. Babies who urinate frequently or have diarrhea and frequent bowel movements can often be more prone to rash. The frequency of diaper dermatitis decreases as the number of diaper changes increases.
The minute particles of chemicals are released into the body when the diaper comes into the contact of the body. The herbal finish of peppermint extract or oils is readily absorbed by the skin leading to quick beneficial effects, as the toxins in the body are either removed or neutralized. All the ingredients of peppermint are devoid of any synthetic toxic chemicals and are biodegradable; hence it the protects the environment from pollution and damage.
Thus, medicinal plant i.e. Mint on their antimicrobial properties is reviewed. This paper gives a review of the scope of natural variants in the field of antimicrobial finishes.
Mint in India
The cultivation of mint originated from Brazil and China. Subsequently, China and India overtook Brazil and more recently India has taken the leading position in the cultivation of this, essential oil yielding plant.
At present, mint is cultivated in India on about 60,000 ha. of land with estimated production of 12,000 tons of mint oil which accounts for about 75% of total menthol mint production in the world.
The four most commonly cultivated species are:
- Japanese Mint/Menthol Mint (M.arvensis)
- Peppermint (M.piperita)
- Spearmint (M. spicata)
- Bergamot mint (M. citrata)
The following Table-1 gives estimated area & production of various mint species in India vis-à-vis world production.
Table-1: Estimated area and production of mint in India and abroad.
|Species||Area (ha.)||Production (tonnes of Oil)||Total world production (tonnes of Oil))||Major Producing Countries|
|Japanese mint||60,000||12,000||16,000||India,China, Brazil|
|Peppermint||2,500||200||4,000||USA, France, former USSR, Brazil, India|
|Bergamot mint||1,200||150||200||USA , Brazil, Thailand|
|Spearmint||3,000||300||2,000||USA,China, former USSR, India|
Source: Essential Oils Association of India (2001), Vision 2005
Diaper rash or diaper dermatitis is a common condition that can make a baby’s skin sore, red, scaly, and tender. It develops when skin is exposed to prolonged wetness.
Why do babies get diaper rash?
Usually, diaper rash is the result of an irritation, infection, or allergy.
- A baby’s skin can get irritated when a diaper is left on for too long.
- Urine (pee) changes the skin’s pH levels, and that lets bacteria and fungi grow more easily.
- Babies with sensitive skin also can develop rashes. Certain types of detergent, soaps, diapers (or dyes from diapers), or baby wipes can affect sensitive skin, causing a rash.
Existing Solution To Prevent Diaper Rash
“Babies wearing superabsorbent disposable diapers. With the increase in the population of working women, parenting and childcare needs have also changed. To reduce the incidence of diaper rash, disposable diapers have been engineered to pull moisture away from the baby’s skin using synthetic non-bio degradable chemicals.
However, keep in mind that superabsorbent diapers contain dyes that were suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).
What’s in Disposable Diapers?
Most babies wear diapers nearly 24 hours a day, and those diapers are in constant contact with both skin and mucous membranes. This means that any chemicals in diapers are likely to wind up in your baby’s system if he or she wears disposable diapers. Many parents are surprised to learn a number of chemicals in disposable diapers that can wind up in your child’s system.
1. Dioxins – Many baby diapers are bleached with chlorine, resulting in remaining traces of dioxins. According to the World Health Organisation, dioxins are “persistent environmental pollutants” that can cause an array of health problems including developmental delays, damaged immunity, hormone interference, and certain cancers. Even if dioxins don’t wind up in the diapers after bleaching, they do wind up in the water and thus, the food supply, creating an environmental health problem from the manufacture of diapers.
2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) – Many disposable diapers release VOCs such as ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene. According to the EPA, some VOC’s are carcinogens. Others can cause neurological problems, eye irritation, and decreased immunity.
3. Sodium Polyacrylate (SAP) – The absorbent center in disposable diapers is made from SAP. Once used in tampons, SAP was responsible for the cases of Toxic Shock Syndrome associated with the products. SAP also irritates skin, can cause staph infections and may be related to other health problems, as well.
Mother’s Opinion About Baby Diaper:
Forty percent of a mother of infants age group 3-12 months use baby diaper regularly. More than 64 percent of mothers of 3-18 months of infants use baby diaper occasionally in that Hygiene and travel were the major reasons quoted by 100 and 84 percent of mothers for using the baby diaper.
The reason for preferring a specific brand was cost and comfort. Maximum of 76 percent mothers were not aware of the raw materials used in the baby diaper.
Rashes and itching sensation was the maximum problem faced by children using baby diapers. Only forty mothers were interested in accepting the value specially finished baby diaper for their infants. Types of finish required were off with the antibacterial and cool finish.
Preparation Of Leaf Extracts
Apparently healthy plants were collected, washed thoroughly with tap water and dried at dark room temperature for 15 days. The leaves were powdered and extracted. The powdered material was soaked in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water by keeping it in a shaker for 3 days. The extracts were filtered through cheesecloth and the extracts were reduced to 10 % of its original volume. The filtrate organic solvents were concentrated under vacuum using a rotary evaporator, while aqueous extracts were dried using the water bath.
Separation Of The Compounds
The menthol present in Mentha piperita leaf extracts was analyzed for qualitative by using thin layer chromatography. aluminum sheets with silica gel 60F254 were used. The isolation separation of menthol was done.
What Has Peppermint In It?
Peppermint owes most of its taste to another substance, menthol, which has a mild anesthetic and cooling effect, making it especially valuable in medicines. M. Piperita is a hybrid of spearmint (M. spica L.) and water mint (M. aquatica L.), it grows particularly well in areas with high water-holding capacity soil .
Peppermint is one type of mint, but when referring simply to mint, the reference is sometimes also to spearmint. Spearmint and peppermint oils are two types of essential oils that come from the same plant family. Essential oils are essences taken from plants for their healing properties. Peppermint was actually created through a combination of spearmint and water mint.Peppermint and spearmint have similar benefits; although peppermint seems to be more effective, spearmint is more gentle.
The oil contains high levels of alcohol (43.47-50.10%) and with the major compound being menthol (28.19-30.35%). The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) of peppermint oil against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (0.15, 0.08, 0.92 %v/v, respectively) was stronger than that of any other mint.
MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of the essential oil at which the microorganism does not exhibit visible growth, as indicated by the turbidity of the medium. MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of the essential oil at which inoculated microorganism was completely killed
Peppermint extracts are bacteriostatic against Streptococcus pyrogens, Streptococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyrogens, Serratia marcescens, E.coli and Mycobacterium avium (Gotshall, 1949). Peppermint is also found to have antiviral and fungicidal activity.
Analysis Of Essential Oil
The essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS using a Hewlett-Packard GC systems (HP6890 series Ⅱ) coupled with a mass detector (MSD5973).
The percentage of components was calculated from total ion chromatograms.
Table 1: Major compounds (%) of Peppermint
Scope Of Study
Quantitative Assessment of Antibacterial Activity of the Diaper (AATCC 100 parallel streak method).
The Percentage reduction test confirmed the antimicrobial activity of the Diaper front sheets treated with nano-encapsulated A. vera extract.
The Diaper front sheets treated with nano-encapsulated A. vera extract expressed a bacterial reduction percentage of 96.66 and 94.16 against the test organisms namely S. aureus and E.coli respectively.
The diaper finished with nano-encapsulated A.vera extract expressed a slightly higher rewet value compared with the untreated diapers which had a rewet value of 5.9s. The lesser the rewet value the better is the performance of the diaper. If the absorbed fluid surfaces onto the diaper, then it would cause dampness and would result in skin infection.
Many studies based on a chemical & biological composition of peppermint claims about its antimicrobial property which kills or control the growth of micro-organism. Thus, it can be applied to baby diapers to prevent rashes. It is also found that peppermint has much more benefits than any other mint, which makes it suitable for finishing on diapers. The antibacterial layer touching skin proves to be safe, laying a foundation to reduce health problems like nappy rashes, red patches, itching sensation on the baby’s skin. Since the active principles were of natural origin and it does not have any ill effects on the baby skin. But again to what extent it is safe to baby skin need to be studied.
It shows that the Mentha piperita leaf extracts (menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate, methanofuran, and limonene) should contain the effective active constituents responsible for eliminating the bacterial pathogens. Finally, it can be concluded that the active chemical compounds present in Mentha piperita should certainly find a place in the treatment of various bacterial infections. The present study is very encouraging and indicates this herb should be studied more extensively to explore its potential in the treatment of infectious diseases as well.
The coating of diaper front sheet using plant natural products was found to exhibit antibacterial properties. Further, there is a need to study on whether peppermint extract or oil finish will give the best results. The study shows the mint oils contain more alcohol and terpene and the major compound was menthol. The antimicrobial activity of peppermint against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was stronger than any other mint. Peppermint can be a good substitute to Aloe vera and other herbs used for herbal finishing on baby diapers. The action of EOs and their components on bacteria remains a focal area for future research. The study of this mint extract is very important to study in the area of herbal finishing on baby diapers to prevent infections to skin.
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