- 1 Definition Of Defence Textile
- 2 Criteria which are selected during Protective Textiles/ Defence Textiles
- 3 Textile for Environmental Protection
- 4 Textile material used for environmental protection
- 5 Method of Measuring Sweat Absorbing Capacity
- 6 Importance of Thermal Insulation
- 7 Military Combat Clothing System
- 8 Designing of Bullet Proof Fabric
- 9 The necessity of camouflage, concealment and deception material/fabric in defence? And technique to produce
Definition Of Defence Textile
“A textile material developed to fulfill the technical requirement of defense such as Camouflage, flameproof, ballistic cloths etc”. These are called as Defence Textile.
Criteria for designing modern military textiles are:-
Six criteria have to be considered while designing modern military textiles –
- Physical Requirement.
- Environmental Requirement.
- Heat Protection Requirement.
- Ballistic Proof.
- Camouflage and Deception Requirement.
- Economic Consideration.
Criteria which are selected during Protective Textiles/ Defence Textiles
1. Physical Requirement
- Lightweight and low bulk: – The items used for the military purpose have to be carried by individual or
vehicle with minimum space availability.
- High durability, dimensional stability & cleanability: – The textile material must operate reliably in adverse condition for a long period of time without maintenance.
- Good handle and drape: – A textile material should be easy to body fit structures, it should not
produce any type of noise i.e. tactically it should be quiet.
- Antistatic charge: – It is must and necessary in military textiles to avoid the incidence of
2. Environmental Requirement
- Water repellent for exterior materials exposed to cold slash also it should have the following properties:-
3. Snow Shading.
- Thermal insulation property especially required in cold climatic conditions.
- Water vapor permeability: – This is must and necessary for personal clothing’s as well as for organization equipment such as tents.
- Ultraviolet Resistance: – This property is required for textile material which is been used in desert conditions were the defence material is exposed to strong sunlight effect.
- Air permeability: – The property is very important when the uniform is worn in tropical conditions.
- Biodegradability: – All defence textile material has a limited economic life after which it has to be disposed of. When disposed under earth it should be biodegradable.
3. Heat Protection Requirement
- Flame resistance: – The outer layer of textile material has always a chance that it will come in
contact with a burning substance so it should be flame resistant.
- Heat resistance: – The compact soldier is always exposed to hot climatic conditions so the inner garments were worn should have heat resistance property to avoid heat shrinkage and degradation.
- Melt resistance: – After taking many precautions, then also a soldier is exposed to extreme hot condition the textile material worn next to skin should not melt otherwise it will cause serious injury to a human being.
- Low smoke emission: – All textiles products used by the military organization if carried by an accident or by chance catch fire should emit minimum smoke otherwise casualty may cause due to suffocation.
- Low toxicity: – This is required because the textile material is used in compact spaces such as ships, submarines, buildings structure, tanks, and military vehicles. If any of the above-mentioned equipment gets to fire the textile material is going to be fire, so it should not produce any toxic gases which ultimately going to cause human life.
4. Ballistic Protection:-
- Ballistic fragments: – The textile material worn by the soldier is exposed to shells generated by bombs, hand grenades, and other warheads.
- Low-velocity bullets: – The textile material should be bulletproof from a bullet fired through a handgun or pistol.
- High-velocity bullets: – All fabric should be resistance to a high-velocity bullet fired from powerful gun such as 5.5mm up to 12.7g caliber.
- Flechettes: – (Pins) Small sharp needle-shaped projectiles were thrown out from hand granite which may penetrate in vital organs like the heart should be stopped by textile material.
- Chemical warfare agents: -These fabrics are worn especially were chemical war equipment is used which includes blood agents and nerve agents.
- Biological agents: – When biological war equipment is used in that case textile materials are used to protect the entire human body from bacteria, toxins, and viruses which are
developed in chemical laboratories.
- Nuclear radiation: – The body has to be protected from alpha, beta, gamma radiation in an event when the Nuclear atomic bomb is used for vast destruction.
- Direct energy weapons: – This includes laser rays or other heat generating equipment from which the human body is to be protected.
5. Camouflage Concealment & Deception Requirement
- Visual spectrum: – The exposed material should match visual colors, texture, and natural background. The UV spectrum the fabric should match optical properties of snow and ice because the effect of UV rays is very high at high altitudes.
- Near-infrared: – This is used to match the reflection of background when viewed by the image intensifier and low light night vision cameras or other equipment.
- Far infrared: – This finish on the textile material is used to minimize the heat signature released by humans and hot equipment. This is detected by using thermal images.
- Acoustic release: – The sound produce like rustle and swish noise released by the certain textile material is detected by a real means or unwanted ground sensors and microphones.
- Radar spectrum: – This is required to avoid or hide the detection of movement by Doppler radar.
6. Economic Consideration:-
- Easy care: – The fabric should be smart enough, nonironing, easily cleanable.
- Minimum maintenance: – Maintenance facility is not available on the battlefield.
- Long storage life: – A textile material used in defence is not used frequently; Way stops need to be stored for 10-20 years.
- Repairable: – this equipment should be repairable by the individual or at headquarter workshop.
- Decontamination/Disposal:-This property is essential especially against nuclear, biological, chemical contamination.
- Readily available: – This material should be easily available for raising a tender in the industry of required specification.
- Minimum cost: – This material is brought by taxpayers and other public funding.
Textile for Environmental Protection
Military forces have to be prepared to operate in all parts of the globe from
- Arctic tuff temperature.
- Jungle area.
- Desert area.
As such, they experience the widest range of climate change condition possibility encountering rain, snow, wind, Fog, lightning, sunlight, and dust.
They have to survive the heat, cold, UV light, chill the wind and another discomfort on Land, Sea, and Air. The environment is considered to have the highest priority were the protection of individual is consider, whether force is operating at headquarter, during training of internal security or peacekeeping duties or involved in the full-scale war. The environment is ever present. The battlefield threads which probably held more threatening, but that occurs at much less frequent intervals as compared to environment.
Textile material used for environmental protection
Textile material used next to skin is primarily worn for environmental and hygienic protection. The thermal insulation property tends to be less important than the tactical properties. But it is important that hoe textile material handles moisture (mainly perspiration) in order to remove it from the skin. The comfort properties are associated with
- Body fitting ability.
- Dermatic skin reaction.
Due to the above reasons mainly nations don’t use treated scary wool fabric but they prefer nonthermoplastic fibre to avoid contact melt/burn injuries.
The perspiration and handling properties of knitted underwear material are extremely critical for mobile land forces because their activity ranges from
- Rapid movement on foot carrying heavy loads.
- Total immobilization for long period like an ambush area. From above we can conclude that military forces cannot choose the level of activity or wet for better conditions. This makes all important to staying dry and comfortable. Sweat waited for clothing is uncomfortable, but it is the worst situation when one loose dry thermal insulation and wind chill effect on wet skin and clothing can lead to hypothermia in cold wet condition.
Method of Measuring Sweat Absorbing Capacity
The sweat content of fabric in contact with a skin is measured using a
the subjective scale of wetness was,
The sweat absorbing capacity of fabric is measured using sweating guided hot plate in accordance with ISO11002 which is called as HOHENSTEIN skin model apparatus.
In this system, it is assumed that a garment is lying on wearer wet skin. The passage of water through the sample is measured at intervals. It gives an indication of water that has passed through the plate to the environment and also that which has been absorbed from the plate into the sample. It is indicated by buffering index (Kf) and which has values between 0-1.
0- No water transferred.
1- All water transferred.
0.7- Indicates good performance
The table below indicates the sweat buffering index –
polyester, 1/1 Rib
cotton 2 sided rib
cotton double jersey
cotton double jersey
The above result shows that for the wide range of fabric poses very similar buffering index when exposed to a large amount of sweat. The value of 0.7 indicates that a fabric will have good weakening property and drying properties. The best fabric in this test were blends of hollow polyester and cotton double jersey construction.
Importance of Thermal Insulation
Military forces of many nations need to survive in most extreme conditions known as earth.
The cold wet region tends to cause most savior problem, as it is necessary to provide and maintain dry thermal insulation of material.
The military forces in cold dry areas like the Arctic circle; Antarctica and mountains will require carrying carriages, clothing, and sleeping bags also personal equipment which will possess a high level of thermal insulation. Military forces sacrifice thermal comfort with lightweight and low bulk item due to the availability of space and load-bearing capacity of the individual.
Water Vapour Permeability
The disadvantage associated with waterproof fabric is that it obstructs water but at the same time it doesn’t allow water vapor to pass. Without this facility, the problem can occur when impermeable clothing is worn by the highly active
The effect of wearing impermeable clothing in different condition is as follows:-
- 1. During cold wet climate with medium activity, the impermeable clothing may uncomfortable.
- During the cold wet climate, the soldier performing high activity followed by low activity may lead to hypothermia (cold stress).
- Hot moist climate person wearing protective clothing and performing high activity this may lead to hyperthermia (heat stress).
In most extreme war operations soldier cannot choose the climatic conditions or nature of the activity. This may lead to injury or death due to hypothermia or hyperthermia.
To overcome the above problems for military various fabrics are developed which are waterproof but at the same time, it is water vapor permeable. The various types of fabrics developed are as follows:-
- High density weaved fabric: – This is the woven fabric having heavy thread count (TC) i.e. heavy EPI&PPI manufacturing from cotton or high-performance hollow polyester fibre.
Some of the fibres developed military by Japanese are-
a) Ellettes by Japan (Tejjen).
b) Savina by kanebo.
- Microspores coating and films: -In this type, a coating is applied to the military fabric having microspores pores having with size 0.1 to 5 Um.
E.g. Gore-Tex (PTFE), polyurethane film.
- Hydrophilic solid coating and films: – These are contrasted with nature to microspores film. The hydrophilic product having continuous force or free from solid films are manufactured. The diffusion of water vapor is achieved by forming a hydrophilic functional group into coated polymers. Such type of polymers is also designed for the military.
Comparison of various water vapor materials:-
Most military casualties/death are not caused by bullets, the main thread is from fragmenting device like garnets, mortar, shells, mines and improved explosive devices. The table below shows causalities in war including The World
War II Korea, Israel etc.
|CAUSES OF CASUALTIES||PERCENTAGE|
From the above table, it is clear that the main cause of injury is fragments thrown out from various types of bombs. The other causes are
- High-velocity bullets fired from handguns.
- High-velocity weapons such as Rifle and machine guns tend to be used for longer range.
- Bullets are light to kill a person as compared to bomb, fragments which will tend to create more wounds ranging it in severity depending on the source and distance of the blast.
- There may also be causalities from secondary source by the effect of bombs including collapsing of the building, exploding of aircraft, sinking ship and even from flying desire.
Military Combat Clothing System
These are based upon the layer principle where each layer performs a specific function in the combat clothing. The layer is as follows
- The first wear is under garments manufacturing from 100% cotton or hollow polyester fibres knitted 1/1 rib.
- The 2nd layer is Norwegian shirt manufactured from 100% cotton, knitted plush with terry loop piles.
- The 3rd layer is lightweight combat suit the fabric manufactured from PC blend with twill having camouflage effects like DPM and IRR.
DPM= Destructive pattern material.
IRR= Infrared Radiation.
- The 4th layer is windproof or environmental proof jacket. It is manufactured from gabardine fabric having 100% cotton with nylon rib stop also it is provided with water repellent finish near IRR, DPM.
- The 5th layer is a pile jacket manufactured from knitted hollow polyester flush pile double jersey fabric.
- The 6th layer is waterproof rain suit manufactured from nylon, PTFE, which is waterproof and water permeable. This layer is also having DPM, IRR camouflage effect. This is a basic fighting system to which sometimes one can add protective layers including ballistic system, body armor, Helmet, nuclear protection, biological protection and chemical protection combining it is called as NBC suit and a snow camouflage effect.
Which properties of technical textile help military land forces of textile material of ballistic protection?
Ballistic protection involves arresting the flight of projectile at a short distance as possible. This requires the use of high modulus textile fibre, having a very high strength and low elasticity.
The low elasticity prevents the penetration of bullets and helps to avoid the injury caused due to such impact.
The woven textile is commonly used for this purpose sometimes nonwoven are also used. The different types of fibres are used as follows:-
- 1. In early days woven silk was used for this purpose, further engineered spider silk was also used for this purpose.
- Nylon 6, 6 (ballistic nylon) which have a high degree of crystallite and low elongation are widely used in body armor and helmets.
- The fibres available under the trade name of Kevlar are widely used for the preparation of body suit.
- A range of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibre has been developed. Available under the trade name of ESM and Spectra. These fibres have the lowest density of all the ballistic fibres i.e. 0.97 but the disadvantage is
the melting point is 150 degree.
From above it is clear that special fibres offer great advantages such as:
- Low density.
- High Tenacity.
- Low Elasticity.
Designing of Bullet Proof Fabric
Ballistic fabrics are designed to loose plain woven construction. To manufacturer ballistic fabric has a continuous multifilament yarn with the minimum twist gives best results. Generally used fibres are high-performance fibres sometimes ballistic nylon. The loose woven construction produces a light flexible fabric ideal for shaped clothing panel. However with
The loose woven construction produces a light flexible fabric ideal for shaped clothing panel. However with the loose set, there is high probability offer projectile sliding between the individual filaments, so to stop this certain amount of bulk is necessary due to which the ballistic resistance increases also it will help to increase areal density.
This is why many layers of fabric are used to manufacture a bulletproof fabric; near about 5-20 layers are used to produce a ballistic protection fabric which can arrest bullets or fragments of bombs.
Each body armor layer is allowed to move independently. The pack is secured by stitching it properly and maintains the proper degree of flexibility. The flexibility allows the wearer to bend, turn and make the arm movement.
It is necessary to seal a ballistic vest inside a waterproof and light proof cover because moisture and UV light can reduce the performance of ballistic equipment.
Spectrum of Camouflage
|Visible Spectrum||400-900 Nm visible by
|Match color, texture
and background desert,
|UV rays||200-400 Nm||Match color, texture
and background desert,
|Near Infrared||750-2000 Nm||Match reference of
viewed by the image
intensifier, low light etc
|Far infrared||500-2500 Nm||Minimise heat signature
from human/ hot
|Radar||2-18 GHZ||Avoids movement
detection by doppler test
|Acoustic||20-20000 Hz||Detection by ear or
The necessity of camouflage, concealment and deception material/fabric in defence? And technique to produce
The word camouflage comes from the French word, “Camouflage” (To deceive) as was 1st introduced by the French army during World War 1. To define the concealment of object and peoples by limiting physical movement and hiding
the object or human being in order to survive during wartime. The ‘khaki’ color was introduced by Indian army in 1850.
The camouflage is used by the army to survive in various atmosphere conditions such as rainforest, deserts, and snow-covered area depending upon the area where the soldier is being placed. The soldier fighting in the forest will have suits
printed with camouflage effect which will match to the surrounding atmosphere.
Care is taken during dyeing and printing that this material should not reflect light nor it produces sound during body movement.
The dress code of soldier placed in the desert will have a camouflage effect with “khaki” so that he could be easily remaining hidden for a long time if we don’t make anybody movement. The special treatment is given to this fabric because there are very high chances of UV degradation in the desert area.
The fabric provided for a soldier at high altitude is quite different compared to class, here care is taken that the fabric is manufactured from hollow high-performance MMF so that it can maintain and act as an insulator in higher altitudes.
As required the body suit will be pure white so it can be easily hidden in the surrounding. The chemical finishes applied are titanium dioxide so that luster Effect of polyester or fabric can be reduced and a person wearing such suits will be invisible in the snow area.
A camouflage decoy is manufactured such as air craft’s, battle tanks, well and was required they are carried, air is filled in it and arranged in a systematic manner to create a deception effect to show that physically there are a number of
air crafts or battle tanks. This may deceive the army even a satellite view is taken. The tanks working in snow area are covered with
The tanks working in snow area are covered with a special type of white nets similar to surrounding due to which it is invisible by observed from a long distance.