- 1 What Is Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mills?
- 2 Cotton Textile Production Process (Cotton Spinning)
- 3 Reporting Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mill
- 4 Noise Pollution
- 5 Ring Spinning And O.E. Rotor Spinning
- 6 Causes Of Noise Pollution In Spinning Mill
- 7 Effect Of Noise On Environment
- 8 Hazards Of Noise Pollution On Environment Due To Spinning
- 9 Air Pollution
- 10 Classification of Cotton Dust
- 11 Types of Dust
- 12 What Are Effects Of Air Pollution Due To Spinning?
- 13 Permissible Exposure Limits For Cotton Dust For Different Work Areas
- 14 Environmental Exposure Monitoring
- 15 Prevention Measures To Be Followed During Manufacturing Process
- 16 Precautions To Be Taken For Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mill
The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things which provide conditions & development & growth as well as danger & damage. OR it is combination of biotic & a biotic components, &they are interdependent on each other.
What Is Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mills?
Living things do not simply exist in their environment. They constantly interact with it. Organisms change in response to conditions in their environment.
The environment consists of the interactions among plants, animals, soil, water, temperature, light, and other living and non-living things.
The word environment is used to talk about many things. People in different fields of knowledge (like history, geography or biology) use the word differently.
An electromagnetic environment is the various radio waves that equipment such as radio and radar can meet. Galactic environment refers to conditions between the stars.
The abiotic environment includes the air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere) and land (lithosphere). The biotic environment includes the plants, animals and the microbes.
A healthy environment is an absolute necessity for the well-being of all organisms, including man. All our needs, big and small are being met by the environment.
However, the man has reached the pinnacle of evolution is trying to bring about changes in the environment to suit his convenience. Unfortunately, this convenience is temporary.
In the long run, man is losing out on a healthy environment.
The textile industry is the second largest industry in the world next to agriculture. In India, the textile industry contributes substantially to the foreign exchange earned by the country.
The textile industry is providing employment to numerous people to the country.
The emphasis on awareness about the environmental concern such as air, water & noise pollution during the processing from fibre to fabric is essential in the present circumstances.
There were 1818 mills (NON-SSI) in the country as on January 30, 2015, with a capacity of 35.37 million spindles, 4, 48,000 rotors and 69,000 looms.
Information regarding cotton dust exposure impacts on worker & its control strategies is missing among textile employers, management & employees.
The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of this issue such as causes, health hazards arising due to cotton dust and air quality standards available to facilitate textile mill employees & management to establish cotton dust control strategies to save their workers from its harmful health impacts.
Cotton Textile Production Process (Cotton Spinning)
Depending on the amount of environmental pollution generated by industry, the govt. of India has classified the industries into three categories, viz. red, orange and green.
Industries under the red category are identified as the most heavily polluting followed by those in the orange category and green category respectively.
According to this classification cotton spinning and weaving industry fall in the orange category which means these industries are prone to produce environmental pollution at an alarming level.
In developing countries, a high prevalence of manual & heavy physical work combined with the lack of general health & social protection warrants an urgent need to develop occupational health services giving due consideration to general health needs besides improvement of health &environment.
The occupational health standards workers & workplaces vary substantially according to the structure, level of industrialization development status, climatic conditions traditions of occupational health & safety.
According to WHO 20 to 50 present of workers are subjected to hazardous exposures in industrialized countries & the rate may be even higher in developing countries.
Although the textile industry is an old & traditional one, not much categories, namely environmental hazards & physical hazards.
Cotton dust, when breathed in, irritates the lungs and exposed workers experience the following symptoms: difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, coughing and wheezing.
The current analysis was limited to the objective of determining the attention was paid to the environmental hazards produced by this industry.
However, with the increasing awareness towards environmental issues & labor welfare, a good amount of seriousness has been aroused & attention is being paid to this issue by employers, machinery manufacturers & technologists, legal & statutory measures have also been enforced to control the hazards.
As far as the spinning mill is concerned the hazards are confined mainly to the workplace in the spinning mill can be classified in two main questionnaires enquiring about the respiratory health was administered to the employees.
Associated with cotton dust among workers in cotton spinning mills in Zambia has not been documented.
It was, therefore, the objective of this study to determine the prevalence rates of respiratory conditions among workers in cotton textile spinning mills in the world.
Have a look at this video – Environment Impact of Textile Industries
It is of great importance to prevent accidents which might interfere with public health and safety, safety and health at work, environment; safety of property, products, and reputation of companies and industries.
The paper investigates the risk of an explosion or fire involving hazardous materials inside a textile mill and also analyses the results of this probability proportion of workers experiencing difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, coughing, wheezing and phlegm.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers in a cotton spinning mill. A convenient sample was selected by the management from all work areas.
Reporting Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mill
Dust and Fly
All textiles manufacturing process except garment making generates environmental pollution. During cotton spinning dust and fly is released into the air streams of the production departments.
Most of the textile mills in INDIA are equipped with automatic waste removal, dust filtration, and humidification plants. The dust and fly released by machines are sucked away by the suction nozzles and ducts.
The dust-laden air is filtered, humidifies and recirculated. The number of air changes per hour is optimized in each department to keep the air stream clean, hygienic to prevent any risk to the health of the workers.
The Frequency of Recirculation of Air is in General as Follows:
However, some of the average runs of the textile mill are equipped with nonautomatic locally manufactured dust filtration and humidification plants.
The dust-laden air is discharged into dust chambers and filter rooms. The dust and fly are not removed completely from the air which is humidified and re-circulated workers in these mills are exposed to the risk of breathing air polluted with dust and fly and contracting respiratory ailments, byssinosis (lung disease) chronic bronchitis.
Public sector agency has so far come forward to conduct a survey of the textiles mills and collect data on the concentrations of dust and fly in the streams of the production departments.
The seriousness of the risk to which the workers of these mills are exposed is, therefore, unknown!
On the other hand , minimization of contaminations in the machine extract air is considered equally important and receives as much attention as the maintenance of the required levels of temperature and humidity in the developed countries of Europe & U.S.A. the objects this endeavor is to keep the environments clean and hygienic and reduce exposure of workers to health hazards!
In order to minimize the risk of industrial diseases such as byssinosis (lung disease) among the workers.
The occupational safety & health authority (OSHA) of the U.S.A. has specified concentration limits of dust in the air streams of production room for compliance by the concerned industries as follows:
- 5 mg per cubic meter, from blowing to the roving preparation and for a manufacturer of nonwoven.
- 2 mg per cubic meter, for spinning, twisting, winding & warping.
- 75 mg per cubic meter, for sizing & weaving.
Cotton dust is one of the main environmental hazards which cause health risk in a spinning mill.
Out of these two, cotton dust and fly released in the spinning room environment contribute maximum to the health hazards of the workers.
The physical hazards are mainly the chances of accidents, involving physical damage to the workers, and process hazards such as a fire.
With proper precaution process design, training of labors and safety gadgets the physical hazards can be minimized or almost eliminated. However, cotton dust is a continual and persistent problem.
Researchers and machinery manufacturers have successes in reducing the intensity of the problem to a great extent & hence today spinning room environment is a safer workplace.
Dust problem In Cotton Spinning
Cotton dust in the workplace is a major problem in a cotton textile industry; this problem is more severe in the spinning section.
Dust consists of small and microscopic particles of various substances which are present as suspended particles in air and sink slowly so that they can be transported in air over substantial distances, in accordance with a classification system established by the international committee for cotton testing methods, the particles present in the cotton dust can be distinguished on the basis of particle size such as trash, Dust, micro dust &fine dust or breathable.
Because of the high spindle speeds reached on new machines (ring spindles up to 20,000 rap), spinning mills can be generally be assumed to generate a great deal of noise.
- Noise levels of 70 to 100db (A) are commonly recorded in workroom.
As the spinning process calls for a specific room climate, i.e. temperature & humidity, which must be as constant as possible & not affected by the time of day on might, or season, practically all spinning mills today are fitted with powerful air conditioning systems.
To limit the cost of air conditioning, the production plant must be well insulated against temperature changes.
In the sixties and seventies, this led to windowless architecture mills with extremely good values for insulation against temperature variations & against noise.
Since the eighties, the windowless design has been frowned upon by the building authorities in the light of the physiological problems caused by employees.
To improve workplace design fields of vision of around 2 -5 % of the floor area of the workrooms must be provided, and special glazing needed for this.
The mechanical stress on fibres during the spinning process results in the production of considerable dust. This must be carefully extracted for industrial safety reasons and in order to keep the product clean.
Emission can be prevented and dust extracted by means of special machine enclosures and extraction systems and via the air conditioning systems which keep, the air in the room circulating.
Air is not reintroduced until it has been passed through automatic filter installations. The filter dust is not dangerous and its disposal is therefore not a problem.
The survey has so far been undertaken by any public or private sector agencies to collect data about noise levels in the production department of textile mills except the study by PCSIR, applied accounts group in a texturizing plant.
The levels of noise were found to be as under.
- Filament take up section = 93.20Db
- Texturizing section =94.80 Db
- Compressor house = 99.50Db
These noise levels are higher than the permissible limit of 90Db specified in the federal standards of U.S.A. for the maximum exposure duration of 8 hours per day.
Ring Spinning And O.E. Rotor Spinning
The ring sheds of spinning mills are the noisiest departments. The sound level intensity of a machine is measured by the sound level meter which is unknown in most of the average run of the spinning mills in Pakistan.
However, the data on sound levels of various models of ring spinning frames reported by prominent machinery manufacturers shows that the sound level intensities in the ring she’d seldom reach 80 Db.
The sound level intensities of various models of individual OE-Rotor spinning machines are higher than 80 Db as reported by ELITEX of Czechoslovakia.
- Stroji- import BDA-10 and Shubert Salzer spincomet =84 Db
- Toyoda AS and schlafhorst auto core =85 Db
- Rieter M2/1 =86 dB
The sound level intensities of the above-listed OE-rotor spinning machines are lower than the permissible limit of 90Db of the federal standards of U.S.A. nevertheless, in an OE-rotor spinning shed with 20 machines i.e. 3840 rotors in operation, the possibility of the sound level intensity exceeding 90 Db cannot be ruled out.
The workers in these sheds if exposed to an intensity of 90 Db or higher for more than 8 hours per day face risk of gradual damage to their hearing capabilities.
Causes Of Noise Pollution In Spinning Mill
Causes of noise pollution in a spinning mill is mainly due to friction made in machines, different types of gear mechanism are used to give a drive to the different types of rollers and pulley. Following types of gear parts are used:-
- Simple gear
- Continuous gear train
- Chain drive
- bevel drive
- worm and worm wheel
- variable drive
- Pawl drive
All above gears are used as required the motion in different parts of a machine, in the high-speed machine, a high-speed motor is used.
This motor is connected to the gear link, during high-speed working is more friction contact made between two metal gears causes the sound of wear of gear.
If gear teeth pitch is less and diameter is less and aped is more than more sound produced and noise causes. If sufficient big gear pitch as used for high-speed gear decrease in sound is possible.
But due to an absence of space available for the particular machine is less. So, machine manufacturer used the small pitch gears and causes of noise causes.
Effect Of Noise On Environment
Noise health effects are both and behavioral in nature the unwanted sound is called noise pollution. This unwanted sound can damage physiological health.
Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension is the leading causes of health problems whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.
Hearing the mechanism for chronic exposure to noise leading to hearing loss is well established. The elevated sound levels cause trauma to the cochlear structure in the inner ear.
Which give rise to the irreversible hearing loss. A very loud sound in a particular frequency range can damage the cochlea’s hair cells that respond to that range thereby reducing the ear’s ability to hear those frequencies in the future.
However, loud noise in any frequency range has deleterious effects across the entire range of human hearing.
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single 8 hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points.
This will increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to the increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals by causing stress, increasing the risk of mortality by changing the delicate balance in predator/prey detection and avoidance.
By interfering with their use of sounds communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.
An impact of noise on animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noise areas may causes which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction.
One of the best-known cause of damaged caused by noise pollution is the death of certain species of beached whales, brought on the loud sound of military sonar.
Hazards Of Noise Pollution On Environment Due To Spinning
- The eardrum is damaged when exposed to very loud and sudden noise. The pair calls in the inner ear are chronically damaged. Prolonged exposure to noise of certain frequencies pattern leads to hearing loss.
- According to KRYTER in 1970, noise causes heart output to decrease with fluctuation in arterial blood pressure and vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels.
- Recently, the report indicates that blood in thickened by excessive noise. Eosinophilia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and hypoglycemia are caused by the alteration in the blood due to noise.
- Noise effects sleep and work performance, especially of watch repairs and others where precision is called for.
In the spinning mill dust and fly is the main reason for air pollution but along with this, there are also too many things affecting this.
Causes Of Air Pollution
- Ginning factories discharge large amounts of cotton dust. Cotton ginning and pressing have been identified as traditional industries under the unorganized sector which functions on a seasonal basis.
- A major problem of cotton dust exists in the blow room and carding section of spinning mill whereas exposure level in other areas in comparatively not much.
- Poor relative humidity follow-up in the department.
- Blowdown on blow off is the cleaning of equipment and surface with compressed air.
- Cleaning of clothing or floors with compressed air.
- Improper handling of waste during transportation.
- Insufficient ventilation system.
- The improper suction system in the key areas such as blow room and carding and wherever there is a chance of dust generation.
- When the material such as laps, silver cans, and roving bobbins are delayed in processes or stored for an extended period in an area where there is a likelihood of significant dust or lint accumulation. Poor follow-up in covering the material leads to dust formation.
- Usage of spring-loaded cans and carts as waste receptacles creating dust dispersion during comparison of the spring loaded bottoms.
- Poor working conditioning/procedures and cleaning methods.
Classification of Cotton Dust
|TYPE||SIZE OF PARTICLE (mm)|
|Breathable Dust||Below 15|
The micro dust comprises 50-80% fibre fragment, leaf and husk fragments, 10-25% sand and earth and 10-25% water-soluble materials.
The high proportion of fibre fragments indicate that the large part of micro dust arises in the course of processing.
Nearly about 40% of the micro dust is free between the fibres and flocks, 20-30% is loosely bound, and the remaining 20-30% bound to the fibres.
Types of Dust
- INHALABLE DUST: It is a term used to describe dust that is hazardous when deposited anywhere in the respiratory tree including mouth & nose.
- THORACIC DUST: It is defined as those materials that are hazardous when deposited anywhere within the lung airways and the gas exchange region.
- RESPIRABLE DUST: Repairable dust is defined as that fraction of the dust reaching alveolar regions of the lungs.
What Are Effects Of Air Pollution Due To Spinning?
Workers exposed to the cotton dust laden environment generally become patients of byssinosis. It is a breathing disorder that occurs in some individual with exposure to raw cotton dust.
Characteristically workers exhibit shortness of breath and / the feeling of chest tightness when returning to work after being in the mill for a day or more. There may be increased cough and phlegm production.
Change in the levels of ESR, LDH3, and histamine may be used as indicators to assess pulmonary dysfunction in the workers those are exposed to cotton dust.
It was suggested that the low hemoglobin and poor immunity against disease may also predispose the outcome of pulmonary dysfunction at an earlier stage.
Cotton dust extract induces the release of histamine from samples of human lung tissue in vitro. Therefore it is believed that histamine released is responsible for the measure symptoms of byssinosis, viz “chest tightness”.
Dr.Richard schilling, a British physician developed a system of grading workers based on their breathing complaints on the first workday of the week.
Schillings classification grades byssinosis according to how far it has progressed. Schillings classification is as follows:
1) Grade 0 = no complaints of breathing problems.
2) grade ½ = chest tightness and /shortness of breath sometimes on the first day of the work week
3) Grade 1 =chest tightness and / shortness of breath always on the first day of work week.
4) Grade 2 = chest tightness and /shortness of breath on the first workday and on another day of the work week.
5) Grade 3 = chest tightness and / shortness of breath on the first work day and other days as well as impairment of lung function.
It is being lived that the degree or severity of response for individuals with symptoms of byssinosis is related to the dust level of the workplace.
The beginning steps in yarn preparation generally produce more dust. Therefore, the closer to the beginning of the process, the higher will be the dust level and more likely the pulmonary reaction or response for some workers.
Dust Control Measure
1] Monitoring of cotton Dust concentration in the occupational environment.
2] Provide medical surveillance to the cotton dust exposed workers.
3] Establishing safe working practices to reduce the exposure level.
4] Training and education of workers.
5] Engineering controls to reduce the emission.
6] Use of dust masks.
Medical examinations are to be provided to prospective employees prior to their initial assignment. As a minimum, the examination should include:
1} A standardized respiratory questionnaire inquiring about such concerns as a cough, chest tightness and smoking history.
2}A pulmonary function (breathing) test including the forced vital capacity (FVC), the amount of air one can force out after taking a deep breath and forced an expiratory volume in 1 second (fev 1), the amount of air forced out during the first second of expiration.
3} A medical history of any existing health problems or disease that may affect breathing.
Permissible Exposure Limits For Cotton Dust For Different Work Areas
|DEPARTMENT||PEL (MICROGRAMS PER CUBIC METER )|
|Weaving & knitting||750|
Environmental Exposure Monitoring
1] Sampling of the workplace must be done at least every six months to determine the amount of cotton dust in the environment.
2] Measurements must be representative of all employees in the workplace.
3] Sampling will be done in all work areas and on each shift.
4] While sampling is done for a period equal to at least three –quarters of the shift .generation of cotton dust. The percent of the cotton fibre in the mix; the grade of the cotton & where it was grown; types of yarn being run: and the number and types of machines operating in each area may all affect the amount of cotton dust in the workplace.
Prevention Measures To Be Followed During Manufacturing Process
1} Usage of compressed air for cleaning purpose should be prohibited when other means of cleaning are possible. Where blow-down cleaning is done (meaning general cleaning of the entire room, including the walls and ceiling ventilation ducts), employees performing the cleaning must wear respirators.
2} all other employees not involved with the blowdown cleaning must leave the area.
3} cleaning of clothing or floors with compressed air is prohibited.
4}floor sweeping will be done by vacuum or other methods design to minimize the breathing of dust
5} waste will be handled by mechanical means. Manual handling should be limited as much as possible.
6} ventilation system should be inspected regularly.
Precautions To Be Taken For Environmental And Health Hazards In Spinning Mill
1) Cotton, cotton waste & materials containing cotton dust should be stacked or handled properly in such a way that will reduce dust level.
2) Brooms in such a way that dust will be controlled and vacuum cleaner should be used wherever dust control is difficult.
3)when cleaning machines with brushes or cloths, the individual doing the cleaning should stroke the waste from top to bottoms as far from the face as possible. The surface should not be beaten or fanned during cleaning.
4) Waste should be placed in the corresponding waste storage container immediately before accumulating on the floor.
5) Waste receptacles should not be overfilled such that material spills to the floor during storage or transport to the waste go down.
6) Waste receptacles or waste transport containers should be placed in the respective places such that disturbance creating by any means would be avoided.
7) Spring-loaded cans and carts should not be used as waste receptacles in order to avoid dust dispersion during compression of the spring loaded bottoms.