- 1 INTRODUCTION TO HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBRES
- 2 NANOfibreS
- 3 BIODEGRADABLE fibreS
- 3.1 LYOCELL fibreS
- 3.2 SeaCell
- 3.3 SmartCell
- 3.4 POLYLACTIC ACID fibreS
- 3.5 BACTERIAL CELLULOSE
- 3.6 BACTERIAL POLYESTER
- 3.7 MAN MADE SPIDER SILK
- 4 HIGH-PERFORMANCE fibreS
- 5 INTELLIGENT fibreS
- 6 SUMMARY:
In many cases, the multifunctional fibres are developed or produced on the basis of specific end uses. These fibres are produced by renewable raw material, with low energy consumption, and with non-polluting production technique.
In the 21st century, there are a number of advancements took place and it will continue which will influence the whole textile world. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, fibre engineering, and material science will play an important role in the further development of fibres for next generation. In textile industry lot of development has taken place in fibres, still, it will continue in the future and can compete for the market. This will also impact the forensic fibre investigation.
The paper explains the information or advancement in the fibres till now and future developments in fibres. Some of the Biodegradable fibres, intelligent fibres and high performance fibres have been explained in this article.
KEYWORDS: Nanofibres, Biodegradable fibres- Lyocell fibre, SeaCell, SmartCell, Polylactic acid fibres, Bacterial cellulose, Bacterial polyester, Man-made spider silk, Biodegradable polyesters. Intelligent fibres- Phase change materials, Shape memory polymers. High performance fibres- Dyneema, Hygra.
INTRODUCTION TO HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBRES
Textile is a traditional process in India since a very long period of time. Today, the fabric is produced from varieties of natural and man-made fibres and hence they are found in casework. The interaction between the industries has developed the textile techniques and it will continue in future also. For example, Nanofibres with diameter 1- 100 nanometers are developed with special properties.
It is technology, which will affect the development of entire textile technology and applications of products in future.This gives more energy saving, more efficient and cleaner textile industry.Nanotechnology gives high impact on fibre production and dyestuff.
With some new surface treatment, nanotechnology combines various properties like water repellency, antibacterial protection, mould protection and camouflage purpose.It is expected that global market for nanofibres would reach to the US $825 million by 2017, according to BBC Research Report.
Nanofibres are ultrafine fibres with the diameter less than 100 to few 10 nanometers. The diameter of fibres of cotton, wool and other natural and man-made fibres are 10 to few 100 micrometers.
METHOD OF PRODUCTION
Usually, electrospinning process is used to produce nanofibres which are simple and economical.In this, polymer liquid is exposed to high voltage.
When the voltage of polymer reaches to the point at which, it cross surface tension of the liquid, a metallic nozzle or pipette ejects liquid jet to a metallic collector, which is the electrode of opposite charge and where jet disperses into a multiple number of fine, extra fine fibres.
During this process, charged liquid jet blends and elongational deformation takes place, which results into fine fibres of nanometric cross view dimensions.For good quality nanofibres, with the constant diameter, even and smooth surface, technological parameters should be optimized.
Hence, suitable polymers and optimum concentration and temperature of spinning liquid and voltage.Porous fibre can also be produced by electrospinning with suitable technological parameters.
Morphology and properties of nanofibres, by this method, differs from those of micro fibres and conventional fibres.
Nanofibres are used in textile industry as a ‘Nanocoating technique’, which makes textile material 100% water proof. The materials can be made water and oil repellent with steam permeability, abrasion resistance, and crease resistance, by use of nanofibres on textile materials.
These fibres give predominate specific surface area, flexibility, and tensile strength. These properties can be used for filtration in biomedicine for protection purpose, electronics, and optics field.
Ten times stronger and more durable material than steel with same weight can be produced, using nanotechnology.
It is a form of rayon consisting cellulose fibre made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp) using dry jet spinning developed in 1972. US FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION defines LYOCELL as “The fibre composed of cellulose precipitated from an organic solution in which no substitution of hydroxyl groups takes place and no chemical intermediates are formed.
Lyocell fibre is produced by dissolving pulp, contains highly pure cellulose with little hemicelluloses and no lignin. Hardwood logs are converted into small chips and reacted chemically either with the Prehydrolysis-Kraft processor Sulfite process to remove lignin and hemicelluloses.
The pulp is bleached to remove remaining lignin and dried into the continuous sheet and rolled onto the spool. The pulp is delivered in rolls weighing about 230 Kgs.
In mills, rolls are broken into one-inch squares and dissolved in N-methyl morpholine N-oxide gives solution known as ‘DOPE’. The filtered cellulose solution is pumped through spinnerets, when a solution is pumped, continuous filament comes out. fibres are drawn into
fibres are drawn into the air, for better strength. Then immersed in a solution of amine oxide and diluted which set strands. The strand is then washed in demineralized water.
Finally, Lyocell fibres are dried and water is evaporated. After that finishing is done. The machine “CRIMPER” is used for texturizing and bulk.
Lyocell fabric can be machine washed or dry-cleaned. It has good durability, can be dyed with many colors. Suede, leather, and silk-like textures may be introduced.
SeaCell is a brand name by fibre producer smart fibre AG. It is the eco-friendly fabric made from seaweed. Developed by Nanonic Inc., the small percentage of the plant is mixed with cellulose. It is classified in LyoCell family itself. It is also known as “Brown Algae”.
Seaweed has many advantages that include carbohydrates, amino acid, fat, cellulose, abundant mineral substances like calcium, magnesium, sodium, vitamin A, E, C constituents etc. It consists characteristics of natural cellulose like high strength, soft touch, and fast moisture absorption.
- SeaCell fibre is manufactured from seaweed which becomes less than micron granule, and then its powder is added into wood cellulose NMMO solution for environmental protection. By LyoCell manufacturing process SeaCell fibres are manufactured.
- In another manufacturing process, silver ion is put into complete shaped cellulose fibre and by sterilization, method metal is dissolved inside the fibre. Due to this manufacturing process, it does not lose its antibiotic properties after washing.
- Cellulose characteristic makes soft feel.
- It has high strength, size stability, maintains its touch sense and efficacy after a number of wash.
- Comfortably wearable and sucks sweat 50% faster than cotton.
- Mineral and vitamin in fibre can slowly release in the wet environment and skin poses health care.
- The active compound can arise cell activation in seaweed fibre.
- It can protect skin from environment hurt.
- It is antibiotic and resists mildew.
- Possess good ventilation, avoid infections by keeping skin dry.
Wound dressing, underwear, infant wear, sportswear, bed sheet, decoration and other fabrics in skin contact.
It can be described as the textile materials that think and act themselves. SmartCell is the premium fabric which absorbs and releases heat so that one can remain at a perfect temperature, not too cold or too hot. In brief, it is very comfortable.
SmartCell is a PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL (PCM) micro-composite of latest manufacturing generation with thermal regulating features. It regulates temperature and has excellent climate management. It is manufactured from renewable sources and 100% biodegradable with heat absorption PCMs.
Intermolecular links are broken and converted into the liquid phase when the temperature rises. It regulates body temperature. It contains waxes like Licosane, Octadecane, Heptadecane, and Hexadecane.
These waxes stores heat released by the body and return it back when required by the body due to physical activity and external temperature condition.
It is manufactured by LyoCell manufacturing process as discussed in point 5.1.2 of this article. Raw materials used for this are cellulose and zinc. They are combined together to form PCMs.
- Absorbs heat
- Regulates body temperature
- It is biodegradable
It changes its phases as per external conditions.
Sportswear, Mattress, mattress pads, Anti-inflammatory apparels, protection against heat or cold in a human body.
POLYLACTIC ACID fibreS
It is biodegradable organic substance, found in bodies of animals and microbes. The thermoplastic polymer having the 175oc melting point.
It is produced by Cargill Dow LLC (nature works) (6).Currently, fibres are produced by Japanese company Toray and American company ‘fibre Innovation Technology, Inc. (F.T.I), Kanebo is producing PLA fibres under trademark ‘Lactron’.
These fibres are produced by using conventional melt spinning process. They have round or profiled (Trilobal) cross section and high to medium luster.
The production includes also bicomponent fibres of core/sheath type composed of synthetic polymer and PLA.
It can also be produced by direct condensation of lactic acid. Another method to produce is via cyclic intermediate dimmer through ring opening process.
- It has excellent UV resistance.
- Good moisture absorption capacity.
- Protects skin from environmental hazards.
Due to Lactron’s excellent hand, drape, wicking, and moisture management properties with a natural base, is used in wide range of apparels such as performance active wear, fashion active wear, sports–wear, innerwear, casual wear.
PLA has a competitive advantage against PET and nylon when marketing shirts, dresses, underwear, and shoes.
It is a biopolymer produced by several strains of acetic acid bacteria, having same chemical structures as that of plant-derived cellulose composed of β-1, 4- glycosidic linkages between glucose molecules.
Bacterial cellulose is distinguished from plant-derived cellulose by its high degree of polymerization, high purity and high water holding capacity, free from lignin and hemicelluloses. It has high crystalline and excellent physiochemical characteristics superior to plant-derived cellulose.
It is suitable for biomaterial due to its high tensile strength, insolubility in most of the solvents, non-toxic and good shape retention.
Raw materials used for this are glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, xylose, starch, and glycerol. These fibres are manufactured by addition of acetic acid to glucose and gluconic acid is formed. Then its fermentation is done for fibre manufacturing or reactor process can also be used.
- It is very tough
- Total surface area of this fibre is much higher than that of the ideally smooth fibre of same dimensions.
The food industry, medical textiles, electronic paper etc.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. They are produced by the bacteria to store carbon and energy. More than 150 different monomers can be combined within this family to give materials extremely diverse properties.
These plastics are biodegradable and are used in the production of bioplastics. They can be either thermoplastic or elastomeric materials, with melting point 40-1800c.
To produce PHA, a culture of a micro-organism such as alkalines eutrophic is placed in a suitable medium and fed appropriate nutrients so that it multiplies rapidly.
The biosynthesis of PHA is usually caused by certain deficiency conditions and excess supply of carbon sources. Recombinants Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1 and Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in the production of PHA and malt waste could be used as carbon source for lower cost PHA.
Rivets, staples, screws, surgical mesh, ligaments and tendon grafts, skin substitutes, wound dressing etc.
MAN MADE SPIDER SILK
In the year 2002, Canadian Company ‘Nexia Biotechnologies Inc. & US Army soldier biological, chemical command succeeded in developing first manmade spider silk with trademark “ Biosteel”[2-4].
Industrial process of Biosteel fibres spinning has been developed by Acordis Specialty fibres Ltd., Coventry, Great Britain. It is based on genetic recombination technology.
DNA segment which controls the production of spider silk proteins was introduced into the genome of mammary gland cells of goats. Mammary glands adopted with silk generating genes and production of desired protein milk has started. Later, individual spider genes were introduced into
Later, individual spider genes were introduced into the single cell of goat egg using INVITRO injection method. The transgenic goat was generated with spider silk proteins in its milk. From the aqueous solution of recombinant spider silk proteins, fibres are produced.
These fibres are more elastic and about 50% less strong than natural spider silk. Man made spider silk has young’s modulus of 40-50 Gpa, tough with low density. It is insoluble in water. They are flame and UV stabilized. They are Bio-degradable.
All these properties make them suitable for use in medicine for surgical microstructures, surgical meshes, and artificial ligaments. For a technical application, Bio-steel fibres must be additionally protected in order to preserve their properties for as long time as possible.
High performance fibres are those which very often are made involving novel materials & sophisticated manufacturing techniques. These fibres are normally characterized for their specific performance enhancing properties. High-performance fibres normally add value to the finished products.
It is invented by Albert Penning in 1963 but made commercially available by DSM in 1990 by Dr. Piet Lem stria. DYNEEMA is ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene. It has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 2 and 6 million units.
It is synthesized from a monomer of ethylene. The gel spinning process is used for yarn required for special applications.
- It has good molecular alignment.
- High crystallization, low density.
- It has long molecular chains due to which they are load absorbing fibres.
- 15 times stronger than steel.
- Up to 40% stronger than aramids.
- Floats on water, resistant to moisture, chemicals, and UV.
- Soft as silk, high pliability, low melting point, cut and tear resistant.
Armor, car armor, personal armor, cut resistant gloves, climbing equipment, tent fabrics etc.
Recently high moisture absorptive and highly moisture releasing nylon was developed by Unitika. When nylon was used for clothes the lacks of moisture absorbency caused stuffiness, stickiness and was uncomfortable.
Unitika succeeded in making fibre from highly water absorptive polymer, which can absorb water 35 times, the polymer weight and developed an epoch-making fibre HYGRA.
It is produced by melt spinning process. The skin-core structure of HYGRA consists of nylon skin part and hydrophobic core part.
- Good dimensional stability.
- It has good tensile strength.
Sportswear, socks, undergarments, civil engineering, construction, interior, industrial materials etc.
Intelligent fibres represent next generation of fibres, fabrics. It can be described as textile materials that think and act for themselves. This means it keeps us warm in cold environment or cools in the hot environment.
Intelligent fibres are not confined to the clothing sector alone. It is used in protection, safety, added fashion and convenience. Most important intelligent fibres are Shape memory materials, conductive materials, electronics incorporated textiles.
SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERS
These types of materials can revert from the current shape to a previously held shape; usually due to the action of heat. This technology has been extensively pioneered by UK Defense Clothing and Textile Agency.
When these shape memory materials are activated in clothing, air gaps between adjacent layers of clothing are increased, in order to give better insulation.
Shape memory alloys such as nickel-titanium used to provide increased protection against sources of heat and even extreme heat.
- It has high strength and high young’s modulus.
- Absorbs impacts quickly.
- Shrinkage in contact with a liquid.
- Wrinkle recovery.
- Restraint to tensions.
Hygienic textiles, Compression dressing, Plasters, Seat Belts, Socks, Agro-textiles etc.
Exploration of human/machine interaction and wholly new types of interface sensor technology has resulted in the development of sensor fabrics. These materials also afford designers new opportunities in developing for product markets. By using conductive plastics, pressure sensitive inks and inflexible substrates facilitates new radial possibilities in flexible, user-friendly interfacing textile.
By using conductive plastics, pressure sensitive inks and inflexible substrates facilitates new radical possibilities in flexible, user-friendly interfacing textile.
The structures of these materials offer the capability of reading the location, within a fabric sheet (pads), of a point pressure (such as finger press). It is possible to incorporate this function into an elastic sheet structure, allowing the sheet to conform too many 3-D shapes, including compound curves.
Reading can be obtained from smart fabrics as a result of force and area. This allows the user to differentiate between separately identified inputs ranging from high-speed impact to gentle stoke.
In next generation, clothing products will have special performance functions. This new generation of above-discussed fibres places considerable new demands and creates opportunities for innovations in the textile industry.
The exponential growth of the textile industry primarily runs on textile fibres. In coming few years, there is bright future in R & D activities throughout the world. Developing and manufacturing these kinds of products, both in fibre manufacturing and in the whole textile process, seems like very complicated and expensive than processing conventional fibres, but they give high added value to
Developing and manufacturing these kinds of products, both in fibre manufacturing and in the whole textile process, is very complicated and expensive than processing conventional fibres, but they give high added value to the final application.
- Nanofibres global sales to reach the US $ 176 mn in 2007. Filtration Industry Analyst, Nov.2007, bccresearch.com.
- LAZARIS et al.: Spider Silk fibres Spun from Soluble Recombinant Silk Produced in Mammalian cells. Science, vol.295,2002.
- An innovative biomaterial. http://www.nexiabiotech.com/pdf/bioSteelExpanded-Profile-English.pdf
- Nexia and US Army spin the world’s first man-made spider silk performance fibres, http://www.eurekalert.org/pub releases/2002-01/nbi-nau011102.php.
- LyoCell- Wikipedia.