- 1 Introduction To High Performance Fibres
- 2 Conclusion
Textile Fibres plays a vast role in the material world. There is a new array of fibres which are named as High performance fibres. They are different from conventional fibre, on these are capable to satisfy special technical requirement due to their unique properties.
Some High-performance fibres, such as Kevlar, Nomex, carbon, glass etc. Have more tensile strength, resistance to heat and flame, resistance to the chemical agent than conventional fibres & materials such as steel for example Earlier body of automobile used to be made up with metal but now gain fibre composite used.
It has redeemed the weight and has improved the aerodynamical design. In sport-wear, specially textured nylon fibre is used for better strength and improved breathability to sports wears.
Similarly, Except that two area, high-performance fibres are also used in aerospace, metals, medical Industry except for good tensile property of these are high-performance fibre can be tailored in such a fashion that they can provide versatile, dyeability, adhesion, absorbance, conductivity, flame retardance and a vast range of special surface characteristics.
Introduction To High Performance Fibres
Fibres are playing a vast role in the material world. There are a new array of fibres which are called high-performance fibre. An earlier body of automotive is made up of metals and cast iron but now it is made up of composite fibres like. So why fibre? Because cast iron is heavy and not flexible but fibres are light in weight and flexible enough to make the aerodynamical shape.
So why fibre? Because cast iron is heavy and not flexible but fibres are light in weight and flexible enough to make an aero dynamical shape.
So now we can define high performance fibres is the fibre which have their unique properties that require –
- Exceptional strength and modulus.
- Heat resistance.
- Chemical resistance.
For examples – Carbon fibre, glass fibre, aramid fibre, kevlar, nomex, PBO, chlorinated fibre like PVDV etc.
List of High Performance Fiber –
- Glass Fiber.
- Carbon Fiber.
- Aramid Fiber.
- Spandex Fibre.
Glass fiber is one of the most familiar and oldest, high-performance fibres. It has been manufactured since the 1930s. Although early versions had high-strength, they were relatively inflexible and not suitable for several textile applications.
The basic element of glass fibers is silica, SiO2. In its pure form, it exists as a polymer, (SiO2)n. It has no true melting point but softens up to 1200 °C.
Today’s glass fibers offers much wider range of properties and can be found in many end uses
- Used in making mats.
- The fabric of thermal insulation.
- The fabric of sound insulation.
- Heat and corrosion resistance fabric.
Carbon fiber is mostly used high performance fibres in the material world – it’s one of the strongest and most lightweight materials available on the market today. It is one-third its weight and nearly 5 times stronger than steel, carbon fiber is often used in aerospace and aviation, civil engineering, military, car and automobiles and other sports applications.
Carbon fiber is alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. Carbon fibre variants differ in flexibility, electrical conductivity, thermal and chemical resistance.
Because carbon cannot readily be shaped into fibre form, commercial carbon fibres are made by extrusion of some already made material like rayon, PAN, pitch into filaments, followed by a carbonization process to convert the filaments into carbon.
Applications of Carbon fibre
- Used in aerospace.
- Sports Goods.
- Wind turbine blades.
Spandex is a synthetic fiber that has an exceptional characteristic of elasticity due to which it is also known as elastane. It is lightweight, soft, strong and very stretchable high performance fibres. In fact, spandex fiber was developed as an alternative to rubber but has a better quality than it.
The most significant characteristic of spandex is its stretchability. It can be stretched to a great length and then also recovers it’s near to original shape. It can, in fact, be stretched to almost 500% of its length. It is lightweight, soft, smooth, supple and more durable and has higher retractive ability than rubber.
It is used in many areas of the clothing industry such as –
- Athletic, aerobic, and exercise apparel.
- Skinny jeans, socks, hosiery.
- Home furnishing.
Kevlar is an aramid synthetic fibre related to other aramid fibre like Nomex and technora. Kevlar is synthesized in solution from para-phenylenediamine and terephthaloyla chloride yielding out hydrochloric acid as a byproduct.
Properties of Kevlar fibre –
- High tensile strength.
- High thermal stability, the melting point is 500C.
- Stronger than steel.
- Insoluble in an inorganic solvent.
- Density- 1.45gm/cm cube.
- Recovery- 100%.
- Moisture content- 3%.
Applications of Kevlar Fibre –
- Used in making tires
- Used in making helmet
- Used in making gloves
- Used in making high tensile ropes
- Used in making fuel tank
- Used in making bike racing jackets
What if Kevlar fibre is used as a roof of houses in the village?
People of the village has to suffer a problem in-house i.e. leakage of water and roof get to blow up and broke down easily because it is made up of khappad.
This problem may be sorted out by reminding two properties of kevlar i.e.
- Water repellent property.
- High thermal resistance property.
Kevlar fiber is a structure consisting of aromatic rings connected together on para position with dense hydrogen and covalent bonds so it forms very compact structure do not allow water to enter inside material made up of kevlar.
So a thick sheet of Kevlar material is kept on roof whose size extends from the roof, so during rainwater get repel and flow out and fall on the ground.
Secondly, for the strength of roof, we are very well known about the high tensile strength of fibre which will prevent it from breaking.
During summer season also kevlar will remain stronger because it does not get affected by constant high temp. Thermal aging treatments under both atmosphere and vacuum environments at temperatures of 100°C to 300°C for durations from 2 to 8 h have been made on Kevlar-29 yarns. The effects of thermal
The effects of thermal aging on tensile strength, tensile strain and Young’s modulus of the single fibre have been evaluated. It was established that both the tensile strength and the tensile strain decreased with increase in treatment temperature. For treatment at
For treatment at a constant temperature, the heating duration did not appear to have any effect on the tensile strength and the tensile strain. It was also found that Young’s modulus of the single fiber was not affected by heat treatment under the conditions described above. Heat treatment in the vacuum did not have any effect on the tensile strength.
What if kevlar fibre is used as an oil tank?
We have noticed that fuel tank when transported then a chain is connected from the tank which touches the ground so that static charge produced on steel tank can be grounded and prevent from disaster.
So Kevlar fibre can be used in this application by remanding two properties:-
- Kevlar fibre act as an insulator so there is no chance of static charges.
- Kevlar fibre is insoluble to the organic solvent so origin solvent like oil and fuel do not get react with kevlar material.
So if oil tank is made of kevlar then there will be no chances of static charge because it act as an insulator and since kevlar do not react with an organic solvent so oil will remain safe in the tank without any risk.
Development is increasing day by day by inventing new material, fibres are playing a far good role for providing comfortability and strength. Fibres like carbon, glass, spectra etc are used in every new material. Nowadays fibres are replacing heavy metals and steel and giving more strength than metals. Now, this high-performance fibre will be the future of the material world.
- “High Performance Carbon Fibers”. National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- “The Gifted Men Who Worked for Edison”. Lewis Howard Latimer. National Park Service. Retrieved Dec 1, 2014.
- Bacon, R. “Filamentary graphite, and method for producing the same” S. Patent 2,957,756, Priority date March 18, 1958
- High-performance fibres Edited by J W S Hearle