Introduction To Industrial Fabrics
The designed and engineered products are said to be the industrial fabrics. They find application in the manufacturing parts of machines, structures and other technical articles. They are used for challenging and high-performance applications by the professionals in the non-apparel industry.
The textile fibres are totally different from the industrial fabrics. High-performance fibers, yarns and chemicals to prevent the failures that may cause severe problems are used to make the industrial fabrics. Cord fabrics, belting, conveyor belting, press cloth, filter cloth are the widely used industrial fabrics.
Application Industrial Fabrics And Their Production Process
The synthetic films being replaced by the industrial fabrics in the certain industry. In aerospace apparel and clothing, Architecture & construction. Automotive and fabrics can be specialized for various applications as reflective fabric in life jackets for security purpose and some apparel and as reflectors and alerts in streets as narrow fabrics and it finds application in almost every field. The laminated industrial fabrics are used to protect the product from dust and other waste products and the thicker fabrics are used for laces, tapes.
Types of Fibers
The industrial fibres are classifieds are natural and man-made or artificial. Fibers and fabrics from man-made include cotton fabric, silk fabric, wool fabric, leather fabric, jute fabric, hemp fabric, etc. The artificial includes polyester fabric, viscose fabric, satin fabric, polypropylene fabric etc. Low specific
Low specific weight, produced with low investment at low cost, thermal recycling being possible are the some of the advantages of the natural fabric. Thus the natural fabric results in a higher specific strength and stiffness than glass. The natural fabrics are renewable and the production requires the little amount of energy, carbon dioxide is used while oxygen is given back to the environment.
Production Process Of Industrial Fabrics
The different types of the production process are weaving, knitting, tufting and nonwoven.
Advantages And Disadvantages:
Greater strength, Greater durability, less expensive production, low maintenance, weather resistant, Easy to clean are the advantages of the industrial fabrics. The industrial fabric cannot absorb water (This is an advantage or disadvantage depending on the application).
They are produced using fossil fuels (petroleum), Use chemical which could harm humans and the environment, melt when hot, burn easily, get electrically charged in dry weather, non-biodegradable are the disadvantages of the industrial fabrics.
Identifying the material in a fabric can be done by using several methods. These include the burn test and observation under a microscope. Synthetic fibres need to go to a laboratory for observation under a microscope since synthetic materials based on petroleum (polyester, nylon, acrylic) will untwist, and unravel into fibres of even length and thickness.
A black smoke is produced and it melts quickly on burning. The simple method to identify the fibre is burn test. If the fibre or fabric is blended than the results may be conclusive.The shape of the fibres could be viewed under the microscope as the shape of the fibres come in many ways depending upon the material used.
Threads are several single strands twisted or plied together and the image could be used to identify which kind of the fiber is being used . What type of thread is being used or needed for an application is identified by using a numbering system.
A thread sizing consists of two numbers in it: the count is related to the thickness of a single strand and the second number, the ply, is the number of strands (count/ply). The count is not said to be the direct thickness as it indirect method to find the thickness. It is related to the length per unit weight. Let us take
It is related to the length per unit weight. Let us take an example, in the Nel system of thread measurement, one count equals 300 yards per pound. Thus a 30/2 thread Nel is a two-ply thread, and each single strand measures 30 X 300 yards/pound.
A very popular method of creating fabrics is said to be weaving. The interlacing of a lengthwise yarn system with a widthwise yarn system at 90 degrees to each other is called as weaving which is a simple process. Weaving is an interlacing process and even braiding is considered as an interlacing process.
Satin weave, twill, basket, and basket weave, plain weave are some of the common weaving among the different types of the weaving process. The plain weave is said to be the most common and simple weave used almost everywhere as it is formed alternatively.
Lifting and lowering one warp thread across one weft thread is the method of producing the industrial fabric using plain weave. The yarns do not lie flat because they have to go under and over one another as they are interfaced. The fibre used decides the features of the woven cloth. Using monofilament yarn, a multifilament yarn, and whether the fibre is synthetic or natural are the factors that will affect the stiffness of the fabric.
The process of sewing a surface yarn system is said to be tufting. Loops are formed by hundreds of needles on a special machine. The loops are stitched to the primary backing fabric into vertical columns (rows) and horizontal lines(switches) forming cut and/or uncut loops (piles).
The fabric is back coated to secure tufted loops that come out from the machine. Strength and stability of the fabric are provided by the back coated which also supports the fibreµ. With the help of latex adhesives, the backing is held in the place that laminates primary and secondary backing and also secures the tufts. Carpets are being made by using this technique.
The inter-looping of one yarn system into vertical columns and horizontal rows of loops are called as knitting. The loops are called as wales and courses. Warp and weft are the two main types of knitting. From each, the loops are made sequentially along the length of the fabric in the warp knitting so that each warp thread is fed with the direction of the production in a line.
The fastest method of converting yarn into fabric is said to be warp knitting. The loops made by each weft thread made sequentially across the width of the fabric in the weft knitting. The thread fed to the direction of production at the right angle. This is the most versatile in terms of the range of products produced and the types of yarns that can be used as one machine can use one to 144 needles at the same time.
The sheets or web structures which are bonded together by entangling fibre or filaments are called as non-woven. The mechanical, thermal or chemical process is used to do non-woven. Preferred fibre orientation is not found in non-woven.
They do not need fibre to be converted to yarn. The engineered fabric is inexpensive enough to be used for limited life or single-use applications and is produced by the fast process.
They can be designed with properties such as stretchability, flame retardancy, strength, softness, liquid repellency, and sterility. They are durable. The fabrics for specific jobs could be made by selecting and mixing the raw material and applying a finish by combining the properties.
Nonwoven synthetic fabrics are ‘glued’ together. Web formation, web bonding, and a finishing treatment are the three stages in which the non-woven are manufactured.
They are used in a variety of industries including personal care, healthcare, automotive, industrial, and in construction, etc., and has a variety of application. Nonwoven fabrics are produced by many types of
Nonwoven fabrics are produced by many types of fibres. Based on the required profile and the cost-effectiveness to produce nonwoven bonded fabrics the selection is done. The end type product is the state or
The end type product is the state or conditions the buyer will purchase the fibre or fabric. The end type needed depends on the application and ability to further manufacture the material.
The case study on Accu-Steel Fabric Covered Buildings will show the various use of industrial fabric and the fabrics used in their application.