- 1 Introduction
- 2 Knitting
- 3 Application Of Knitted Fabrics In Technical Textiles
- 3.1 Spacer Fabric
- 3.1.1 Types of Spacer Fabrics
- 3.1.2 Machine Required For Weft Knitting And Warp Knitting
- 3.2 1. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Meditech
- 3.3 2. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Protex
- 3.4 3. Undergarment Sector
- 3.5 4. Spacer Fabric In Seat Cover
- 3.6 5. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Baby Accessories
- 3.7 6. Spacer Fabric In Hip Pads
- 3.1 Spacer Fabric
- 4 Conclusion
It is a product manufactured for non-aesthetic purpose where a function is a primary criterion.It includes Agrotech, Buildtech, Clothtech, Geotech, Gometech, Indutex, Meditex, Mobiletex, Oekotex (Ecotex), Packtex, Protex, Sportex. In this article, we focus on the Geotex, Meditex, Protex, Agrotex, civil engineering.
In this article, we focus particularly on spacer fabric application in technical textile. We try to include at the list on example regarding every field of technical textile.
Spacer fabric is three dimensional knitted fabrics consisting of two separate knitted substrate which is joined together or kept apart by spacer yarn. Also, the manufacturing technology required for the production of spacer fabric also included in short.
In meditex, bandage and plaster are include. During this example, old products are compared by using the testing result. The graph and diagram are added as per the requirements.
In protex new 3D warp knitted helmet is introduced. The function and the properties and specialty also included.
In underwear, we include ladies undergarment. In that, the specification of product just like yarn type, spacing high, area weight and application example is given.
- Baby accessories.
- Hip pads using warp knitted spacer fabric.
Knitting is a method of constructing fabric by interlocking the series of loops of one or more yarns.
Types of knitting
The two major classes of knitting are warp knitting and weft knitting.
1. Warp Knitting
Warp knitting is a method in which the loop formation is along the length of the fabric continuously. Types of warp knitting machines are as follow.
- Tricot knit
- Tricot fabric is soft, wrinkle resistant & has good drape ability.
- Tricot knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights & design.
- It makes light fabric weighing less than 4 ounces/square yard.
- Some examples of tricot fabric are sleepwear, blouses, dresses etc.
2. Raschel knit
- The Raschel knit ranks in the importance of production with tricot but it makes varieties of products ranging from laces, power nets for foundation garments, swimwear to carpets.
- Raschel knitting is done with heavy yarns & usually has a complex lace-like pattern.
3. Crochet knit
- This basic stitch is used in hand crochet.
- This construction is used in a wide variety of fabrics ranging from nets & laces to bed spreads & carpets, various types of edgings or trimmings lace are also produced.
4. Milanese knit
- The Milanese stitch produces a fabric very similar to tricot.
- It can be identified by the fine rib on the face & a diagonal pattern on the back.
- However, a Milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness, elasticity, regularity of structure & friction resistance.
Weft knitting is a method in which the loop formation is along the width of the fabric sequentially. Types of weft knitting machines are as follows.
1. Straight bar frame knitting machine
A machine in which a line of needles is fixed to a support termed a needle bar for movement in unison, for example, as in machines of the Cotton type. By the expression straight bar, i’ib machine is meant one which has two such lines’of needles for drawing loops in opposed directions.
2. Flat knitting machine
Flat knitting is a method for producing knitted fabrics in which the work is turned periodically, i.e, the fabric is worked with alternating sides facing the knitter.
3. Circular knitting machine
Circular knitting or knitting in the round is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. When knitting circularly, the knitting is cast on and the circle of stitches is joined. Knitting is worked in rounds (the equivalent of rows in flat knitting) in a spiral.
A technical textile is a textile that has been developed to meet the exacting specified high-performance requirements of a particular end use other than conventional clothing and furnishings. In many cases, specially developed technical yarns are employed to support and reinforce the fabric properties.
12 sectors of technical textiles are Agrotech, Buildtech, Clothtech, Geotech, Gometech, Indutex, Meditex, Mobiletex, Oekotex(Ecotex), Packtex, Protex, Sportex.
Application Of Knitted Fabrics In Technical Textiles
Spacer fabric is three dimensional knitted fabrics consisting of two separate knitted substrate which is joined together or kept apart by spacer yarn.Two complementary slabs of fabric are tucked in between by the third layer. This yarn is called spacer yarn.
Types of Spacer Fabrics
- Weft knitted
- warp knitted
Machine Required For Weft Knitting And Warp Knitting
Weft knitted spacer fabric machine
1. Dial and cylinder machine
Producing knitted spacer fabric on dial and cylinder m/c can be done using a variety of combination of stitches that connect two independent layers of fabric together. All techniques require the use of at least three different yarns for each course of visual fabric.
- Yarn for the cylinder needles,
- Yarn for the dial needles, and
- A spacer yarn, normal monofilament yarn connecting the two layers.
The distance between the fabrics can be manipulated by the dial height adjustment, ultimately determining the amount of pile yarn being put between the two ground fabrics.
Another example of a spacer fabric produced on a dial and cylinder machine is created by using Jacquard patterning. In this case, a Jacquard pattern layer is weft knitted on cylinder needles, a plain layer is a weft knitted on the dial needles, and the two layers are the couple together with spacer yarn connected in each layer on alternate needles of cylinder or dial.
2. V- Bed spacer fabric machine
When flat-bed knitting machine is used in the production of three-dimensional spacer fabric, two types of product can be created;
- Two independent structure connected by cross threads, and
- Two in dependent fabric structures connected by fabric layers.
The product depicted is a decorative faced multi-layered fabric used in the production of brassieres. The knitting sequence show tow fabric layers being created through the use of varying stitches that are connected by tucks. Feed 1 has yarns being tucked on the alternate needle of the back and front needle beds while feeds 2 and 3 are knitting on the alternate needles on the back needle bed. Feed 4 is sporadically knitting and tucking to create the decorative Jacquard pattern seen on the front of the fabric.
Warp knitted spacer fabric machine
1. Tricot warp knitting machine
Tricot warp knitting machine (having one set of the needle) are similar to plain Jersey fabrics in that they are plain jersey fabrics in that they are different on front and back. The fabric is similar to interlock. Neither fabrics have two distinct layers, as spacer fabric has two layers and therefore it is not possible to make a spacer on tricot machine. But
the production of spacer fabric on a Raschel with to middle bar is possible.
2. Rachel warp knitting machine
Rachel machine with two middle bars produces spacer fabric and has great similarity to flat knitting in that there is a front and back bed of needles being used to created distinct layers that are connected by spacer fabrics. Raschel machine are producing both outer layers simultaneously on different bars using their own sets of needles. Because the layers are knit on their own needle beds and for the front and back the use of different yarns can produce completely different structure. Two layers are connected by pile yarns which form one needle-bar to the other in systematic method of joining the tow independent sides of spacer structure.
1. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Meditech
In conventional method was to bandage the limb with the tabular bandage. Normally foam as a sub-cushioning bandage for providing compression. This concept having following problems.
- Multilayer in the system makes bandage limb relatively stiff and difficult to move.
- So heat is build and perspiration takes place.
3D Fabric Advantage
3D warp knitting elastic compression bandages can provide a new and innovative alternate to the conventional system.
It provides excellent cushioning effect so there is no need to separate material for cushioning like foam. This is much easier to bandage limb. It improves physical comfort other advantages are easy to care and rapidly drying of the bandage. Also, they can be reused many times. They are easy to wind and it doesn’t slip during use.
On machine nine bandages are produced simultaneously. The width of bandages are 8,10 and 12 cm.
1.2 Meditech From 3D Plasters
Transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) one plaster containing active substances which give of medication through the skin into the body (systemic effect) when worn. The advantage of TTS is gastro-intestinal tract can be circumvented, and it only has to be applied once or twice or week. The advantage is skin irritation at the point of application and totally detached during the therapy, ocdusion is a direct result of the very low water vapour permeability of conventional TTs. The low elasticity of cores film can also the TTs to become detached.
To avoid above problem we require to take warp knitted spacer fabric because it having good climatic controlling properties ad absorbing.
The side of spacer fabric away coated with water vapour permeable but watertight layer to prevent any water form penetrate an adhesive, medication coated layer used for fixing the systematic the akin.
2. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Protex
In winter, during sports activities, when perspiration starts and we take some rest then suddenly body temperature moves down, again we start activities and perspiration start. If this type happens frequently, then adverse effect takes place on the body. To avoid this we use helmet or caps. But helmets are often impractical, since they are large and cumbersome and difficult to slow away.
So new concept of SHUNUK come in market, developed by the stylish, high-tech helmet controlling inner layer, which can be joined seamlessly to the shoulder jacket without forming any channel for cold air. It can fold into the pocket.
This is made possible by spacer fabric used, which has an airy construction produced by the net surface on both sides. Wide mesh construction of the cover face, tougher with a clever system of air channels, enables the air circulation freely all over the inside of the helmet and reduce excess perspiration.
If wearer decided to take a break from activity, the air trapped inside 3D spacer can maintain the temperature and keep head worm. It can absorb any shock or impact.
Also, we can add some extra fictions like Bluetooth, music player, GPS etc.
3. Undergarment Sector
The terrot i3p series offers users universal application scope coupled with optimum production output. Offering 84 effective knitting system with a 30’’ diameter, gauge 32 gg, the type i3p284 is particularly suited to the production of spacer fabrics. The machine features mechanical needle selection and is equipped with up to 4 needle tracks in the dial. Use of 3 way technique at every feeder offers the user whole new markets for a wide range of structures.
|Yarns used||Feeders 1-4 PET monofilament dtex 33
Feeders 2,3,5,6 PET filament micro dtex 50f40*1
Feeders 2,3,5,6 elastane plated with dtex 22/dtex 33
|Spacing height||3.0 mm|
|Area weight||280 g/m2|
|Application example||Brassiere cups/sports underwear|
The monofilaments are fundamentally bound into the spacer fabric in the fabric in the form of loops. For reasons of both appearance and also wearing properties, these threads must be covered by the microfilament yarns, i.e. they may be neither visibly nor tangibly perceptible on the worn face of the fabric.
4. Spacer Fabric In Seat Cover
While developing a product, designers must have to give attention on environment issue. In the automotive industry, material recycling becomes very important. Most of the times fabrics and carpets used in the car, which are made from polyester fabric laminated with soft polyurethane foam backing by adhesives. This types of polyester combinations make disassembling virtually impossible and recycling becomes difficult.
Also, we use polyurethane foam in car interiors is environmentally hazardous.
- Surface yarn PES multi-filament.
- Spacer yarn inner PES mono-filament.
All warp knitted spacer fabric was knitted in a double needle bar warp knitting machine with six guide bar. Guide bar GB1, GB2, GB5 & GB6 knit identical surface structures on each needle rod. They produce surface fabrics with a small mesh as shown in the figure. Both GB3 & GB4 are half threaded and undergo symmetrical moments. The length of length depends on distance.
5. Application Of Spacer Fabric In Baby Accessories
- Baby mattress.
- The seat cover of the baby cycle.
Requirements for fabric for baby accessories
- Baby(small child ) bones are soft, we required care it.
- We required providing fresh air.
This type of requirement can fulfill the spacer fabric.
1. Cushioning Effect
- This effect nothing but give soft comfort to the baby.
- Spacer fabric can use in the mattress so that it can give comfort.
2. Air Permeability
- In spacer fabric having more openness.
- So air can pass easily.
- So it can helpful to baby give more fresh air.
6. Spacer Fabric In Hip Pads
A fall in the street frequently means the loss of mobility. Particular those people which are having age more than 35. The result is often broken bones, pain, restrictions on moments, or even hospitalization.
Relatively common injuries to femur particularly at an advanced age and fairly low impact are a fracture of the femoral neck. In this case, a fracture occurs between the hip head and the thighbone-the so called femoral neck. Hip pads have been specially developed in order to reduce the forces in the femoral neck as much as possible when the person falls, and hence minimize the risk of fractures.
Here the use of three-dimensional warp knitted fabrics offers great advantages. Three-dimensional spacer fabric having an advantage on old foam and solid pads. When worn next to the body the breathable, air conditioning and stable three-dimensional structure ensure optimum comfort., sometimes conventional products cannot do.
Also, 3D spacer fabric having shock absorbing property. We can add shock absorbing material with spacer and form sandwich material. This creates optimum cushioning property during fall. Conventional pads are very low to accept because they are hard & inflexible in some cases and uncomfortable to wear. Also, we do not use foam because
wearer look fat and fashionable people refuse to wear.
- In the technical textile field, the warp knitted spacer fabric is having vast applications.
- Special abilities and versatility offered by spacer fabrics include the ability to knit two entirely different fabrics having different fabrics and connect them to form a single structure.
- As the advancements are going on in the spacer fabric applications, the prevalence of spacer fabrics in the marketplace will increase.