- 1 Introduction To Management Information System For Textile Industry
- 2 Management Information System In Textile Industry
- 3 Why Management Information System In Shade Matching?
- 4 MIS IN SHADE MATCHING
- 5 Conclusion:
The Management information system (MIS) is a concept of the last decade. It is typically computer system using for managing the organizations. It focuses on the management of information technology to provide efficiency and effectiveness in working. The primary components of MIS are: Hardware, Software, and Data information, Procedures such as design, development and documentation.
Introduction To Management Information System For Textile Industry
Management information system for textile industry is distinct from other information systems because they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities.
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems.
Information is a product of an analysis of data. This concept is similar to a raw material and the finished product. This concept is similar to a raw material and the finished product. However, data can be analyzing in a number of ways, producing different shades and specifications of the information as a product.
It was, therefore, demanded that the system concept is an individual- oriented, as each individual may have a different orientation towards the information.
The management information system (MIS) in the textile industry is attracting worldwide because of increased complexity and rate of change of today’s business environment for example marketing manager needs information about sales performance and trends financial manager needs information on returns.
Production manager needs information analyzing resources requirement and workers’ productivity and personnel manager with the specific marketing, financial, production and personnel information, and products they require to support their decision making responsibilities.
Management Information System In Textile Industry
In last few years the requirement of textiles in Indian local & export market is increasing tremendously but with the conventional processing & managing unit this becomes difficult such as delaying in delivery date as well as increase in manpower cost this will affects directly on increasing final product cost in market, export of material becomes very less and this is the single reason behind this loss.
This will affects badly on our country economic development. To overcome this problem & fulfill this requirement in given lead time researchers integrates a new system by which the management of processing can be operated from the single platform such as the weaving department production can be mange from the single computer under the management information system(MIS). The MIS plays the vital role in textile industry because of this system there is the increase in export of the textiles.
Why Management Information System In Shade Matching?
MIS is very important during dyeing of fabrics or yarns because few years before during dyeing process dyes are prepared manually there is not any standard process is used for a preparation of dyes it increases dye formulation because of this production time & cost of dyeing is increased. For this reason, there are some standards & methods of dyeing are integrated under the management information system in the textile industry.
What is colour and how do we see it? Despite our familiarity with colours, this is not an easy question to answer. The answer will vary according to the human perception in case of manual inspection of shades i.e. Dark or light shade value. The manual/ verbal discussion invites many unseen troubles regarding disagreement of colour approval. However, during the production coloration process when the bulk textile fabric are dyed or printed in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 meters long run and the accuracy becomes more important than during colour approval stage.
Any rejection at this stage will definitely be tremendous cost has to pay, this disadvantages and may lead to losing customers and wastage time and effort on the other hand. Hence, the margin of errors is too small. Mostly dyers and colourists routinely reprocess to correct the shade, but this correction increases the cost 2.5 times the first time.
To overcome this problem the researcher’s developed some advance techniques under management information system (MIS). This technique will provide the valuable Data for quick decision making such as Spectrophotometer values, QTX files, Delta e reports etc. The use of spectrophotometer and colour software’s can significantly reduce the lead time and brings accuracy and perfection at both level colour approval stage and during coloration process.
MIS IN SHADE MATCHING
1) Define the Colour standards
The first step is to define the colour standards for the fabric dyeing. This means that the customer and supplier will decide the colour as per their requirement. Normally the customer will provide the reference sample or reference no of the colour standard that will be Pantone, CSI or fabric swatch. Pantone is a standardized colour matching system, utilizing the Pantone number for identifying the colours.
Pantone INC. is the leading source of colour standard for the selection and accurate communication of colour around the world. Pantone INC Developed a relationship with Clarian resulting in the consistently reproducible colour that will allow dye mills to dramatically reduce colour development lead times. Pantone standards are available in Two formats TCX (woven fabric), TPX (Plastic cards) which is very small in size around 4” X 4”.
SI (Colour Solutions international) is a division of Daystar Group Develops the new colour from the available colour pallet for the specific buyer as per their requirement. Along with CSI standard, they also provide suitable recipe & QTX file for making the lab dips.
2) LABDIP DEVELOPMENT
A lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to match a colour standard. Lab dips gives the nearby colour options to the Colour standard. It is a process by which buyer’s supplied swatch or Pantone is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without a help of Spectrophotometer. Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & this is an important task before bulk production.
The object of lab dips is to calculate the recipe for sample dyeing, to compare dyed sample with swatch by lightBox or Spectrophotometer, To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing. Lab dip plays an important role in the dyeing process. Bulk dyeing process completely depends on the lab dip development work
Before starting the lab dips preparation, Instrumental Colour measurement of the colour standard will be done by Spectrophotometer. This machine determines the Depth & wavelength of colour. The purpose of instrumental colour measurement is to provide objective and quantifiable data for colour communication through the use of the spectrophotometer.
The spectrophotometer will give the QTX files will help to get the nearby Dye recipes for making the lab dips option. QTX needs to determine the colour combination by which you want to dye the fabric. Then CCMS (Computer Colour Matching System) will generate some dyeing recipes which is nearly same. Here it needs to determine the number of chemicals which you want to use during dyeing.
The Samples will be dyed based on given Recipes; normally 4 recipes will be given by CCMS with minor changes in each other. So based on that 4 options of lab dips is prepared A, B, C, D.
3) EVALUATION OF LABDIPS
Lab dips should be made of 3” x 3” for easy evaluation, before sending the lab dips to the Customer first it is revived by Dyemaster/Technician,
Two Methods of evaluation –
I) Visual Evaluation
II) Instrumental Evaluation
I) Visual Evaluation
It is a physical evaluation of lab dips by a standard observer under the Light Box. All colours should be evaluated in light boxes to prevent outside interferences of opposing light sources and to increase the accuracy and consistency of colour comments. Shade matching depends on the accuracy of the man’s eye.
It is a visual process for this reason some shade may have different comments from a different person. So, dyeing expert is needed for this purpose. Besides the computer colour matching system can help man to take a decision about matching the shade.
Shade matching depends on the accuracy of the man’s eye. It is a visual process for this reason some shade may have different comments from a different person. So, dyeing expert is needed for this purpose. Besides the computer colour matching system can help man to take a decision about matching the shade.
The shade of the colour varies depending on the light source under which sample is checked out. For this reason, buyer/ customers give specific light source under which sample will be checked. For this reason, the light box contains certain Light standards of C.I.E which are:
1) D65-Daylight 65 (artificial light) – Consider primary light source refers to a type of lamp whose temperature and the colour is the closest simulation of actual daylight.
2) TL84 (Tungsten light) – A narrow band tri-phosphor fluorescent source originally designed for commercial lighting applications outside North America. It is characterized by emitting high amounts of green energy.
3) CWF (Cool White Fluorescent) – It is a filament series light sources represents various fluorescent lightning. This light source found in an office environment.
4) UV (Ultraviolet) – Light energy not visible to the human eye, but is present in natural daylight. UV energy has the ability to excite optical brightener agents (OBAs) and fluorescent dyes and pigments within a sample causing them to emit light in the visible spectrum, usually in the blue region.
These substances are used in various products to “brighten” colours, particularly whites. It is necessary to include correct amounts of nonharmful near UV energy in a colour matching system to allow for optimum simulation of natural daylight.
5) Illuminant A – Simulates typical home or retail accent lighting. It is a standardized illuminant described in the international standard, CIE Publication 15.2004 and specified for use in colour matching applications in ASTM D17292016. It is used where a yellowish-red source is required. It is the predominant source/illuminant used for both instrumental and visual colour matching applications.
Standard Observer will review the lab dip colour to the standard and if he feels it is up to the acceptable level then he will submit it to the buyer. Now the starts communicate verbally like the submitted lab-dip is redder than what we provide standard (but how much redder is a question), the sample is also lighter or darker etc.
So only visual method cannot give the significant result. at this stage, colourist tries to defend that this should be accepted and submitted lab-dips are under tolerances. When accuracy is everything, then the colour must also be quantified to avoid any technical battle. So to avoid this conflict Instrumental measurement of Lab dips has developed.
II) Instrumental Evaluation
The purpose of instrumental colour measurement is to provide objective, reproducible, quantifiable data for colour communication through the use of the spectrophotometer.
The spectrophotometer helps improve the accuracy of submits, reduce the volume of unsatisfactory submittals, and improve communication and decrease time and expense associated with colour approvals.
Although, there are many other instruments which can measure colour but textiles are measured in a spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometer measures appearance and measuring appearance is a different aspect than measuring colour.
Appearance includes both geometrical attributes and colour attributes, since the textile surface is textured where the geometrical attributes also contribute to the resultant colour, so this is the reason why coloured textiles are measured in a spectrophotometer.
4) PREPARATION & EVALUATION OF FOB (FIRST OF BULK)
Buyer/Customer approved the lab dips with some comments where they advise slight correction needs to done in order to make during Fob.
Corrections are like this –
Go no Greener, to redder, go slightly darker, go no yellower,
Once the buyer has approved the lab dip option, then the supplier will immediately start for preparing Fob.
Fob is the 1-2 meter fabric dyeing by the same recipe of a labdip option or slight changes in the recipe as per buyer comments on lab dip which is approved by buyer.
Types of Fob:-
1) Desk loom (For Woven fabric)
2) Knit down (for knitted fabric)
Before starting the dyeing of Bulk lot (1 -10 tones fabric) Fob needs to get approved by buyer, because even though if we use the same recipe of approved lab dips then also there is a chance of slight variation in shades of fabric also manufacturer has to do some changes in recipes as per buyer comments, so it need to observe how much variation in fob,
Fob will be of 6” x 6” fabric swatch like these minimum 4 swatches need to submit for evaluation. Customer/Buyer will check the Fob against the approved lab dips option and observe whether Fob comes in the same tone of Labdip (Redder, Greener, Yellower,), mainly evaluation will be by visually because in case of fabric colour approval Visual matching is most important than Instrumental matching, After getting approval for Fob then only supplier can start the dyeing of bulk.
So all this shade matching procedure is very critical and time-consuming, hence we used MIS systems like CCMS, Datacolor, Hunterlab etc. for shade matching to reduce the cost of dye formulation, time, avoid wrong submits, to avoid the cost of rejection and reprocessing etc.
Shade matching of fabric is very critical and time-consuming procedure which leads to increased cost of rejection, wrong submits, Cost of dye formulation etc. so the better way is to use of spectrophotometer and colour software (Datacolor, Hunter lab etc.) can significantly reduce the lead time and brings accuracy and perfection at both level colour approval stage and during coloration process.
The manual that is conventional method of communicating colour is still widely being used by several industries in spite of many disadvantages. Effective Colour Management for Textile Coloration, at present, can only be done if the dyer/ colourists and retailer ideally accept the technological change and adopt them in their respective areas.
The barrier to this may be due to the lack of vision, reluctant to invest and lack of understanding the lengthy colour theories. To survive in this fast pace market, the dyer/ colourist can effectively manage the colour by using instrumental ways and techniques.