Fibres which are utilized to satisfied aesthetic properties are known as normal fibres such as cotton, flex, wool etc.
High Performance Fibres
Fibres which are engineered for specific uses that require exceptional strength, heat resistance, and chemical resistance. They are also known as high tensile /high modulus fibres. For example carbon, glass, rayon etc.
Now here is the comparison of some normal fibres and then compare with high performance fibres.
|Cotton is a crystalline fibre, Its polymer system is about 65 to 70 percent crystalline and 35 to 30 percent amorphous. The cotton polymers are well oriented and probably no further apart than 0.5 nm in the crystalline regions. Hydrogen bonds are dominant and most important forces of attraction present in the polymer system of cotton.|
|The flax is a thick, regular fibre with a subdued luster. It ranges in length from about 10 cm to 100 cm, averaging about 50 cm. As flax fibres are the strand of cells, its thickness depends upon the number of cells in one fibre cross-section. Generally, there are three to six cells present in a fibre cross-section. The cells are about 25 mm long. The length to breadth ratio of flax fibre varies from 15000:1 to 1500:1 for the long and short fibres respectively. Chemically flax polymer is composed of cellulose. The degree of polymerization is about 18000 which means flax polymer is made up of about 18000 cellobiose units.||70% is composed of cellulose, it cannot provoke allergies, absorbs humidity and allows the skin to breathe: therefore it is very indicated in the manufacture of summer articles. Very resistant, above all, if wet it can be washed many times without alteration, rather it becomes softer, something very important for articles of clothing and for daily use which requires frequent washing such as shirts. Having very low elasticity, linen cloths do not deform themselves.|
|The wool fibre is crimped, fine to thick, regular fibre. The wool polymer is linear, keratin polymer, with some very short side groups and it normally has a helical configuration. The repeating unit of the wool polymer is the amino acid. Amino acids are linked to each other by the peptide bond to form the wool polymer. A wool polymer is about 140 nm long and about 1 nm thick.|
High Performance Fibres
|Polymer chain in high performance fibres is straight and have not folded. High performance fibres have proper orientation of polymers. High performance fibres also have more crystalline structure and have less amorphous regions. The breadth ratio of high performance fibres is very high which make them stronger. The degree of polymerization is also very high which is directly proportional to heat resistance of fibres.|
High performance fibre is stiffer than the normal fibre. It also has the proper orientation (more axial orientation) of fibre and fibrils throughout the structure. This fibre has no distortion in the polymeric chain system. The rubbery behavior is more in high performance fibre than the normal fibre at some extent. The weaving type changing changes the strength and comfort related properties of fabric made of same fibres.
Textile Science by E.P.G Gohl, L.D. Vilensky