- 1 Pollution And Their Types
- 2 Air Pollution
- 3 Water Pollution
- 4 Noise Pollution
- 5 What Is Pollution Prevention?
- 6 Conclusion
The textile industry leads to various types of pollution. The textile industry produces water, air and mainly noise pollution. By releasing a large number of disposal effluents and by using various types of raw materials the groundwater, surface water and the air is contaminated.
The quantity and the waste generated depends upon the yarn, fabric which is going to be processed, chemicals being used and how the operation is carried out by employing the necessary technique.
Pollution And Their Types
Pollution is said to be any unwanted thing or process that affects and causes an adverse effect on the environment and the plants, animals and the creatures that are living in the environment. Usually the textile mills, factories have cooling towers, canteen, administrative block, raw water treatment system etc that generates waste water and leads to pollution.
The boilers, thermo packs and the diesel generator that releases sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen gas, suspended particulate matter(SPM) etc which are the main air pollutants of textile processing. Effluent treatment plant sludge, Used oil, empty containers of dyes and other chemicals are the sources of hazardous waste generation. The various types of pollution in the textile processing are classified as
- Air pollution
- Water pollution
- Noise and vibration pollution.
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate material that discomfort and can harm living organisms and the environment. Mostly the air pollution in textile occurs in the stages of finishing where various coating is done on the fabric. The air emissions include dust, oil mists, acid vapors and boiler exhaust.
Classification Of The Air Emissions Depending Upon Their Sources
- Storage Tanks
- Waste water treatment
Causes of Air Pollution
The main causes of air pollution are sulfur dioxide, metal sulfate, and the gases emitting from melt spinning process, poly-condensation and weaving and spinning.
In the spinning at various stages from step cleaner that is from opening the fiber to carding where individualization of fibers is done, maximum dust, fly and other waste are generated leading to air pollution.
Hazards Of Air Pollution
Air pollution leads to a hazardous environment, as air is necessary for all living creatures. Air pollution causes persistence of fog, obstruction of sunlight, diminishing visibility and in human, it causes irritation to eyes, respiratory problems, and irritation.
Reducing Air Pollution
Some steps to reduce the emissions to air include
- Decreasing emissions of organic solvents by changing to water-based products.
- Using scrubbers to collect particulate matter.
- Identifying sources of air pollution and quantifying emissions.
- Optimizing boiler operations to reduce the emissions of nitrous and sulfur oxides.
- Avoiding fugitive air emissions from chemical spills through improved works.
Nearly 72% of water consumption takes place in the chemical processing, which is said to be the maximum consumption of water in the textile processing. The water is used at various stages that include printing and finishing operations, rinsing operations, and machine cleaning.
Mainly in the dyeing process, the effluent used contains intensive color and strong chemicals that contain a high dosage of pollutants such as suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and biological oxygen demand.
Causes Of Water Pollution
For sizing of fabrics, poly vinyl chloride is used by the factories, Chlorine bleach is used to lighten a fabric’s color, Benzidine and toluidine are used as a dyeing agent. The other toxic chemicals that are used in textile processing are formaldehyde, lead, and mercury. The pollution also causes when the fabrics are washed and rewashed as they move to the finishing line. The untreated water released in these process pollute the waterways and ground water sources.
Effects Of Water Pollution
- Depletion of dissolved oxygen.
- Impurities in water affect the textile process in many ways.
- Affects the quality of drinking water.
- Corrodes the sewerage pipes.
Measures To Control Water Pollution
- The physical treatment methods include sedimentation, filtration, floatation, distillation, adsorption, membrane treatment, reverse osmosis etc.
- The chemical treatment methods include neutralization, reduction, oxidation, ion exchange, catalysis, electrolysis etc.
- The biological treatment methods include stabilization, fungal treatment, activated sludge, anaerobic digestion, and trickling filters.
- For bleaching process, the oxygen-based could be used instead of the chlorine as chlorine is extremely toxic.
- A finish made of aloe vera, bees wax and vitamin A could be used to give finish to the fabric
- Potato starch or else carboxy methylcellulose could be used for sizing instead of using polyvinyl alcohol.
The combination of various effluents treatment methods can remove nearly 85% of the unwanted matter, as a single effluent method is insufficient to remove the waste a from the industrial waste water.
Air dyeing technology is a technology that uses air instead of water to dye the garments. This technology allows the company to create garments with vivid designs and colors, without polluting the water and the environment.
Development of modern automated machines in the textile industries are considerably decreased the physical burden of work and worker but one of the most undesirable and unavoidable products of these machines is noise pollution.
Usually, the spinning and the weaving mills produce the high sound that causes the workers to have a headache, leads to migration and uncomfortable to the workers to carry out the work. The noise sources of textile processing are due to the following reasons.
- Propagation through air (air-bone noise)
- Propagation through solids (structure-borne noise)
- Diffraction at the machine boundaries
- Reflection of sound from the wall, floor, ceiling and machinery surface.
Hazards Of Noise Pollution
Workers who are exposed to a noise level of above 85-90Db for the whole shift have the danger of permanent hearing loss.
Not only a hearing loss if the workers are exposed to a noise level of 90-115dB they may have the following disorders.
- Cardiovascular and physiologic problem
- Sleep disorder
- A headache with migration
- Mental fatigue
- Speech interference and reduced alertness
- Increased blood pressure and pulse rate.
Control Of Noise Pollution
The following measures are taken to reduce the noise in the textile processing.
- By providing elastomeric spindle the noise level in the spinning section could be reduced.
- The generation of noise is prevented by the vibration isolators.
- The noise pollution during the running of the machine could be reduced by proper maintenance.
- The parts should be replaced by nylon which is a resilient material and produces less sound.
- Complete enclosures around the room reduce the level of noise of noise from 30-60dB.
Sources Of Noise Pollution
Generally, the noise that is generated in the textile processing is classified into two types as
- DYNAMIC SOURCE
The dynamic sources are due to the air jet, fan noise, hydraulic pump, periodic disposal of gas, combustion flow generation noise.
- MECHANICAL SOURCES
The mechanical sources are due to the impact of bearing and slide ways, tooth engagement of the gears, electrically induced vibration in an electric machine.
What Is Pollution Prevention?
Pollution prevention is said as “The act of eliminating the pollutant before it is generated”. Pollution prevention is said to be a philosophy that prevents pollution at the source through cost-effective changes in the design and production. It includes the practices that reduce hazardous and nonhazardous materials, energy, water and other resources.
Source reduction eliminates before it is generated
- The raw materials that are less hazardous should be used for processing the chemicals that generate the waste.
- To increase efficiency and to eliminate the amount of waste generated the modified process should be used.
Example Of Source Reduction Option
- In the wet processing of fabric, the use of auxiliary agents that are less hazardous.
- Prefer nonmetallic dyes and synthetic sizing.
- Change to the mechanical finishing of fabrics to avoid using chemicals.
Benefits From Pollution Prevention
- Reduce operating costs
- Protect human health
- Protect environment
- Improve employee knowledge
The pollution in the textile processing could not be stopped or banned permanently but we could reduce the different types of pollutions that are produced or created during the running of various mills and machines. The workers in the textile industries should ensure that the production area is distant from the place where they take food in order to avoid the consumption of chemicals through.
Modern noise fewer machines should be used. The machines should be completely closed to avoid noise and dust production. The ceiling, flooring, roof and other things should be made up of Gypsum board and other sound observing materials in order to absorb the noise and reduces noise pollution in the factory or mill. Mask and gloves should be used while working hazardous area.