- 1 Introduction To Garment Manufacturing
Introduction To Garment Manufacturing
There are various processes involved in the manufacturing of apparel/garment. In this article, all the processes of apparel manufacturing are discussed briefly.
India’s textiles sector is one of the oldest industries in the Indian economy dating back several centuries. Even today, the textiles sector is one of the largest contributors to India’s exports with approximately 15 per cent of total export. Apparel production is a process where the fabric is being converted into garments.
Ready to wear apparel or garment manufacturing involves many processing steps, beginning with the idea or design concept and ending with the finished product.
The processes involved in apparel manufacturing are – Design/Sketch, Sampling, Costing, Production Planning, Maker Making, Fabric Spreading, Cutting, Sewing, Stitching, Thread Trimmed, Washing, Finishing, Ironing, Packing, Folding, Other Processes, Final Inspection, Dispatch.
In the garment manufacturing, the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that should be prepared. For this purpose, the designer first draws several rough sketches in the sketchbook or in the CAD/CAM by their own creativity or as per the buyer’s requirements.
Sampling is the second process in the garment manufacturing process. In this process, according to the design made by the designer the sample garment is manufactured and it is sent to the buyer to rectify. This process is also known as the product development stage.
Business is all about making a profit. So the correct costing of the product before order finalization is very important. The cost of the garment is the cumulative cost of raw material, labour cost, factory margin, depreciation cost of the machine and all other taxes.
After receiving the order, factory plans for when to buy the raw material required for the order. Raw material like fabrics, sewing threads, packing material, hand tags, and other accessories.
The factory must plan for the timelines like when to start cutting when to submit a preproduction sample when to finish sewing, and finishing, final inspection date, and shipment date. In production planning stage job responsibility for different processes is defined.
The maker making is one of the most important tasks in the garment manufacturing industry. Accurate maker making helps to reduce fabric wastage which ultimately reduced the cost of making the garments.
To cut the fabric properly fabric is spread in the play form. Fabric spreading is done manually or by using the computerized method.
In this stage, the fabric is layered on a table, layer by layer up to a certain level. Then by means of cutting machine fabric are cut into garment shapes or pattern and separated from the layer. This cutting can be done by manually operated blade cutting machines or by computerized laser beam cutting.
Garments are sewn in an assembly line with the garment becoming complete as it progresses down the sewing line. Sewing machines operators receive a bundle of cut fabric and repeatedly sew the same portion of the garment, and passing that completed portion to the next operator.
For example, the first operator may sew the collar to the body of the garment and the next operator may sew a sleeve to the body. Quality assurance is performed at the end of the sewing line to ensure that the of the sewing line to ensure that the garment has been properly assembled.
After stitching, all hanging threads are cut by means of hand trimmer. Auto thread trimming machines are also available to perform this task. All loose threads inside the garment are removed as well. Garments without any loose thread and long tail are the basic qualification requirement.
This process is performed when the buyer wants washing or special finishes to the garments. For light colour, garment washing is carried out to remove dirt and stains though the buyer doesn’t need the washing of garment for the order.
Finishing & Ironing
After sewing, we will get a complete garment which is treated with steam ironing and several finishing processes are done for example extra loose thread cutting.
To make the garment more attractive some other additional process is done like dyeing, printing, embroidery for the value addition.
Packing & Folding
Each pressed garment is then folded with tissue or cardboard. Folding varies product to product and also buyer to buyer.
Hang tags, special tag and price tag are attached with plastic Kindle or thread. Folded and tagged garments are then packed into the poly bags.
Generally, this process includes checking of the garment, measurements checking. After completion of all process, all pieces are checked by quality checker to ensure that garments are being made as per buyer quality standards. Checking is normally done for visual appearance and measurement.
After completing all the process, the garment is now ready for dispatch.
Indian garment industry plays a very important role in the Indian economy. The export contribution is 11% of the total export. Indian textile industry has the market size of 108 Bn USD, and by 2021 which by 223Bn USD. And total GDP contribution is 5%.
In this paper, all the processes involved in the garment industry are Design/Sketch, Sampling, Costing, Production Planning, Maker Making, Fabric Spreading, Cutting, Sewing, Stitching, Thread Trimmed, Washing, Finishing, Ironing, Packing, Folding, Other Processes, Final Inspection, Dispatch. And all these processes are described briefly.