- 1 Bamboo Fibres
- 1.1 Material
- 1.2 Fabric Specifications
- 1.3 Physical Properties of Bamboo Fibre
- 1.4 Properties of Bamboo Yarn
- 1.5 Testing of Fabric Properties
- 1.6 Results
- 2 Conclusion
Bamboo fibre is made from bamboo timber which has matured in the forest for at least 4 years. When they are matured they are taken to mills. They are crushed and submerged in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide which dissolves the bamboo cellulose.
With the addition of carbon disulphate, it renders the mix ready to generate fibres which are then drawn off, washed and bleached to a bright white color and dried. The resultant fluff is very long in staple and finer than other fibre. They are spun into the yarn like other fibre.
The hollowness of fibre contributes to its very high level of absorbency. The hollowness of the fibre also enables it to hold dyes and pigments thus making it much more colorfast. The two main chemicals are used in the process are sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide.
In this article, the study on physical properties of Bamboo and Bamboo-Cotton Blended fabric is discussed.
Bamboo fibre is the cellulose fibre extracted from the natural growth of bamboo, and are the fifth natural fibres following the cotton, linen wool, and silk. Bamboo fibre has good air permeability, instantaneous water absorption, strong wear resistance, and good dyeing and other characteristics.
The major component of bamboo is natural bamboo fibre which is extracted with physical and chemical preparation method of combing natural bamboo fibre elements. Pure bamboo fibre is a paste made of bamboo and then made into pulp slurry and then wet spinning, into fibres which are substantially similar to its production process and viscose.
Bamboo carbon fibre elements is the Bamboo fibre yarn is applied to fabric mat, bed sheet, curtains, and scarves blending the bamboo finer with cotton, wool, and linen, silk, and chemical fibre and then used to produce a variety of woven and knit fabrics. Woven fabric can be used to make curtains, jackets, casual wear, suits, shirts and towels, bath towels and so on.
Knitted fabrics suitable for making underwear, sweatshirts, T-shirts, socks and so on. Apart from it, high-quality cool jade fibre can also be applied to produce these kinds of fibre products. Based on claims made in marketing the “bamboo” fibres, and the properties of other fibres, it was hypothesized that: The “bamboo” fibres, yarns, fabrics, and garments being offered, primarily on the internet, were actually rayon made from cellulose derived from bamboo plants after pulping, similar to pulping done to trees.
The bamboo fibre has a natural effect of sterilization and bacteriostatic and therefore it has incomparably wide foreground on the application in sanitary materials such as sanitary towels, gauge mask, absorbent pads, and food packing and so on. In, the medical scope, it can be processed into the products of bamboo fibre gauze; operating coat and nurse dress etc.
Because of the natural antibiosis function of the bamboo fibre the finished products need no adding any artificial synthesized antimicrobial agent. Therefore bamboo fibre products will not cause skin allergies and at the same time, it has a competitive advantage in the market.
It is also proven that even after fifty times of washing bamboo fibre fabrics still possesses the excellent function of antibacterial. Its test result show over 70% elimination rate after bacteria being incubated on bamboo on bamboo fibre fabric.
More important, bamboo fibre is a unique biodegradable textile material. As a natural cellulose fibre it can be 100% biodegraded in soil by micro-organism and sunlight. The decomposition process does not cause any pollution in the environment.
“Bamboo fibre comes from natural and completely returns to nature in the end”. Bamboo fibre is praised as “the natural, green and eco-friendly new type textile material of 21st century”.
Bamboo fibre has the unusual ability to breath and its coolness. Because the cross-section of bamboo fibre is filled with various micro-gaps and micro-holes, it has much better moisture absorption and ventilation.
It is never sticking to skin even in hot summer. According to authorities testing figures, apparels made from bamboo fibres are 1-2 degrees lower than normal apparels in hot summer. Apparel made from bamboo fibre is crowned as Air Conditioning Dress.
The study on the properties of bamboo and bamboo-cotton blended fabrics is as follow.
Yarn of 30s Ne for 100% bamboo and 30s Ne cotton yarn were used as processing material for this study.
Physical Properties of Bamboo Fibre
Properties of Bamboo Yarn
- Breaking strength- 295.7gm.
- Avg. Elongation at break- 6.25.
- Extension- 13.5%.
- Tenacity – 15.025gm/Tex.
Testing of Fabric Properties
The various fabric physical properties are determined as per standard testing methods after conditioning the specimen at 65% RH and 27+/- 2°c for 24 hours.
- Breaking strength and elongation (IS- 6359:1971 SP-15)
- Abrasion resistance (ASTM D4157)
- Thickness (ASTM D 1777)
- Air permeability (ASTM D 737)
- Tearing Strength (ASTM methods 1424 and 2261)
Here A1 sample is of 100% Bamboo fabric and A2 is of Bamboo-cotton fabric. The A1 sample and A2 samples were tested for air permeability, the tensile strength of bamboo yarn, abrasion resistance of fabric, tensile strength of fabric and tearing strength of fabric.
As the tests were carried out the data of each individual test were calculated to understand the significant effect on fabric properties. In this, the results are analysed and discussed.
1 Tensile Strength Testing and Elongation% of Fabric
The experimental results show that, A1 sample exhibits higher tensile strength than A2 sample. This result may be because of the higher tenacity of bamboo fabric in the warp direction. As A2 sample has less tenacity as warp cotton is used hence defer in strength.
The experimental results show that, A1 sample exhibits slight less tensile strength as compared to A2 sample. As in A2 sample weft is used as bamboo where the tensile strength of both the samples is nearly the same. So the above results show that both the samples have nearly similar values in the weft direction.
2 Elongation %
Bamboo fabric exhibits higher elongation than bamboo cotton (50-50) blended yarn fabric. This result may be attributed to higher elongation of bamboo fibre.
3 Abrasion Resistance and Thickness of Fabric
The apparatus is designed to give a controlled amount of abrasion between fabric surfaces at comparatively low pressures in continuous changing directions. Abrasion is one aspect of wear and is the rubbing away of component fibres and yarn of fabric. Total no of cycles used were 20.
Fabric thickness is the distance between tow plane parallel plates when the fabric is kept between them known arbitrary pressure between plates. It is used for checking the material against specifications. It is also used to study fabric geometry.
As this fabric indicates good abrasion resistance as compared to A2 sample. The thickness is of bamboo fabric is good as bamboo-cotton fabric. Here loss in thickness after testing is 3.44% and loss in weight is 26.19%. As fabric is composed of bamboo strength is more which may vary in test. So this figure indicates good abrasion of fabric and good thickness. As this material can be used as daily purpose fabric and also for garments.
4 Tearing Strength Test
It prescribes a method for determination of tear strength of all types of woven fabrics by means of Elmendorf tester. It works on the principle of average force required to continue a tongue type tear in fabric is determined by measuring work done in tearing it through a fixed distance.
The figure indicates tearing strength of A1 sample. The reading is in warp and weft way direction of the fabric. The Avg. scale reading of tear fore in warp direction is 47.2. This is further multiplied to the weight of tearing force which is 64 kg. So the average warp way tearing strength is 3020.8gmf.
Same in the weft direction, the Avg. Scale reading in weft direction is 57.4. This is further multiplied to weight of tearing force which is 64kg. So the average warp way strength is 3673.6 gmf. So the figures indicate that tearing force is more in weft direction in bamboo fabric. So it gives better results in tearing strength testing.
The figure indicates the tearing strength of A2 sample. The reading is in warp and weft way direction of the fabric. The Avg. scale reading of tear fore in warp direction is 39.8. This is further multiplied to the weight of tearing force which is 64 kg. So the average warp way tearing strength is 2547.2gmf.
Same in the weft direction, the Avg. Scale reading in weft direction is 41. This is further multiplied to weight of tearing force which is 64kg. So the average warp way strength is 2624 gmf. So the figures indicate that tearing force is less in warp direction in bamboo-cotton fabric.
As in warp, cotton is used and in weft, bamboo yarn is used; hence it is clear that bamboo yarn has good tearing property than cotton. So by this way, bamboo-cotton fabric has less tearing strength than 100% bamboo fabric.
5 Air Permeability
The air permeability of a fabric is the volume of air in cubic centimeter passed per second through 1 cm sq of a fabric under a pressure head of 1 cm of water. Depending upon the end use the air permeability varies.Air permeability of A1 fabric= 177.15 cm3/cm2/sec.
The graph shows the volume of air passed through fabric in cubic centimeter passed per second through 1 cm sq of a fabric under a pressure head of 1cm of water.The avg. Air permeability of A1 sample is 177.15 cm3/cm2/sec. This is less as compared to A2 sample. As there might be compact structure of bamboo fabric.
The graph shows the volume of air passed through fabric in cubic centimeter passed per second through 1 cm sq of a fabric under a pressure head of 1cm of water. The avg. Air permeability of A2 sample is 191.15cm3/cm2/sec. This is more as compared to A1 sample. As there might be less compact structure of bamboo-cotton fabric so value of air permeability is more.
The physical properties of woven fabrics made from 100% bamboo & bamboo-cotton (50:50) blended yarn has been analyzed.
Bamboo fibre exhibits higher breaking strength than bamboo-cotton (50-50) blended yarn fabric and also it has higher tensile strength. Higher elongation values were noticed in case of 100% bamboo fabric than bamboo-cotton. According to results bamboo fabric exhibits higher tearing strength than bamboo-cotton fabric having similar specifications. The bamboo fabric also exhibits a good thickness as compared to bamboo-cotton fabric. The air permeability of bamboo fabric was less as compared to bamboo-cotton yarn due to the structure of yarn and its properties.
It was observed that air permeability was lower in the fabric woven with 100% bamboo and bamboo-cotton fabric has more values, because the cross–section of the bamboo fibre is filled with various micro-gaps and micro–holes It was concluded that the weave type had a greater effect on air permeability than the proportion of bamboo fibre the weft.
The abrasion results of bamboo fabric was also good as compared to bamboo-cotton. It can conclude that the weave type had a greater effect on abrasion resistance than the fibre type.
The main aim of our project is to increase the utility of bamboo fabrics in our daily life as it has very good results in all above formats. These fabrics are mostly used as bamboo intimated apparels which include sweaters, bath-suits, mats, blankets, towels and good water absorbance. Bamboo fabric has wide prospects in the field of hygiene materials such as sanitary napkins, mask etc.
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