- 1 Introduction to Sewing
- 2 History & Evolution Of Sewing
- 3 Basic Components Of Sewing Machine
- 4 Feed System
- 4.1 Feed Dog Mechanism
- 4.2 Functions of Feed System
- 4.3 Types of Feeds
- 5 Classification Of Sewing Machines
- 5.1 Mechanical Sewing Machines
- 5.2 Electronic Sewing Machines
- 5.3 Computer-Controlled Sewing Machines
- 5.4 1. Button sew Machines
- 5.5 2. Buttonhole Machine
- 5.6 3. Bar Tack Machine
- 5.7 4. Blind Stitch
- 5.8 Related
Introduction to Sewing
America has the honor of giving to the world many novel inventions of immense practical significance to mankind.
Outstanding among these are the Reaper and Mower, the Electric Telegraph, and the Sewing-Machine.
What the Telegraph is to the commercial world, the Reaper to the agricultural, the sewing machine is to the domestic.
Every day, without our knowledge we are looking at the things that are being sewn. Clothing is the most fundamental needs of human beings and clothing requires sewing.
Shoes, curtains, umbrellas, bags, stuffed toys, and furniture are all made by sewing.
History & Evolution Of Sewing
Till the Victorian era, hands were used for joining fabric. Clothes took a lot of time and money to get produced. Factories around the world were hiring many people to sew and sew.
But eventually, as the population of our planet blown up and the industrial revolution started, someone had to come up with an elucidation of how to join two pieces of fabric faster and in an economical way than a hand.
This, in turn, led to an amazing trail of the invention. Elijah Grey should have been the household name. But it didn’t happen because he wasn’t able to patent his sewing machine.
Elijah was beaten by Alexander Graham Bell when he had gone to Patent Office. Elijah had to return home in tears. The year 1844 was excellent as an American farmer was about to shake the sewing world.
Elias Howe patented his machine later in the same year. However, the first unswerving sewing machine was given by Isaac Singer.
Back, in 1790, in England, Thomas Saint, really cracked it and got his sewing machine patented. But, unfortunately, his patent was filed under “Gum and Varnishes” section which was later discovered in 1873-1874.
Basic Components Of Sewing Machine
- Spool pin: It holds the reel and is fitted on top of the arm.
- Tension disc: The two concave discs are put together. Their convex sides face each other. The two discs hold the thread. There are a spring and a nut which adjusts the tension of the thread and increases or decreases it accordingly.
- Take up lever: It is attached to the body of the arm. It shows up and down motion which feeds the thread to the needle and tightens the loop formed by the shuttle.
- Needle bar: This is a steel rod which holds the needle at one end with the help of a clamp. It gives motion to the needle.
- Bobbin case: This moves into position to catch the top thread and form the stitch as the needle is lowered into the bobbin chamber.
- Presser foot: It is fixed to the presser bar. It holds the cloth tightly in position when lowered.
- Presser foot lifter: It is a lever. It is attached to the presser bar. It helps in raising and lowering the presser.
- Stitch regulator: The length of the stitch is controlled by it.
- Bobbin winder: It involves a simple mechanism which is used for the winding thread on the bobbin.
- Clutch or Thumb Screw: This is in the center of the flywheel. It engages and disengages the stitching mechanism.
- Slide Plate: It is a rectangular plate. It facilitates the removal of the bobbin case without lifting the machine.
- Needle Plate or Throat Plate: It is a semi-circular disc with a hole to allow the needle to pass through it.
- Feed dog: It consists of a set of teeth. It is fitted below the needle plate. It helps to move the cloth forward.
- Faceplate: A cover which on removal gives access to the oiling points on the needle bar, presser bar, and take-up lever.
Feed systems relate to the combination of the needle, throat plate, and pressure foot and feed dogs which control the feed of the material from stitch to stitch whilst regulating the relationship between the plies being sewn.
The three sewing machine parts, which together constitute the drop feed mechanism, are the presser foot, the throat plate or needle plate, and the feed dog.
The throat plate is the most passive of the three parts and its function is to provide a smooth, flat surface over which the fabric passes as successive stitches are formed.
The purpose of the feed dog is to move the fabric along by a predetermined amount between successive stitches.
The main purpose of the presser foot is to hold the fabric firmly against the throat plate, thus preventing the fabric rising and falling with the needle.
At the same time, it holds the fabric against the teeth of the feed dog as it rises up to transport the fabric.
Feed Dog Mechanism
Description of Feed Dog
- A feed dog contains rows of teeth which are like a saw.
- In the throat plate, the feed dog is moved upwards and forwards through the slits.
Basic Functions of The Feed Dog
- To move the fabric forward is the main function of feed
- The distance between teeth to teeth is equal to the distance of one stitch length.
Functions of Feed System
- For the advancement of the fabric in the feeding zone of the sewing.
- To decide the length of each and every stitch (SPM).
- The suitable feed mechanism is sleeted to confirm case in sewing.
- Operation & to evade different sewing.
Types of Feeds
- Drop feed mechanism.
- Puller feed.
- Unison feed mechanism.
- Needle feed mechanism.
- Differential bottom feed.
1. Drop Feed Mechanism
- This is one of the simplest feed systems of sewing which is still very much common.
- This is also known as a regular feed.
- Its major components are:
- Throat plate.
- Feed dog.
- Presser’s foot.
Problems of Drop Feed:
When two plies fabrics are sewn- lower ply advances in the forward direction by the help of feed dog. Thus two plies of fabric cannot travel forward at an identical speed.
As a result lower ply is fed more than upper This is known as ply shifting or differential feeding pucker or feeding pucker.
2. Puller Feed system
- This is one of the modifications of the drop feed system.
- Here, a pair of rollers is used.
- These rollers give a pulling motion on the fabric at the back of the presser foot.
- Top roller is generally driven by a machine while the lower roller moves due to control & presser of the top roller.
- The surface speed of the puller roller is somewhat higher than the feed dog speed to presser ply shifting roping.
- Its application includes sewing of large and heavy workpieces like leather upholstery, tents, and car covers.
3. Unison Feed System
- This is also known as the walking foot system since the presser foot has two independently driven section which is – the holding feet & the feeding feet.
- The combination of needle feed & positive top & bottom feed is used here.
- In Unison feed system one presser foot is inside the other presser foot which provides movement at different times.
- The inside presser foot & needle are driven at the same time and also towards the same direction.
- In this system, ply shifting is not possible.
- The walking foot mechanism is also helpful when sewing multi-layered materials, which can be challenging to sew with a stationary presser foot because of the likelihood of the layers unintentionally shifting from their position while stitching.
- Suitable for sewing stitch fabric & for a bulk seam in heavy weight materials.
- This system is normally not so used except for some special case.
4. Needle Feed System
- This feed mechanism is also known as “Compound feed”.
- Here, the needle itself moves to & fro i.e. they rely on the needle itself to act as the primary feeding element that moves the fabric through the feeding zone.
- 1st the needle penetrates the fabric then it enters into the note of the feed dog & for the advancement of 1 stitch length of fabric, feeds dog & needle pass the same distance at the same time.
- After this, the needle rises up & proceed to form the next stitch with one step advance.
- This system is useful in bulky sewing situation such as when quilting through the fabric, wadding & for slapping fabrics.
- In order to change the stitch length, the setting of bath needle & feed dog need be changed.
5. Differential Bottom Feed system
- This is just a modification of the drop feed system.
- In the differential feed mechanism, the feed dog consists of two section – one at back & one at front of the needle.
- Mechanism of each section of feed dog is the same as in the drop feed With one advantage that the speed of each part can be adjusted individually.
- This feed system is extensively used for stretchy materials.
- When the speed of the front feed dog is higher than the back feed dog then in such cases the bottom ply is pulled by the back feed dog but this will overcome by the superior speed of the front feed dog. So less possibility of shifting.
- If the speed of the front feed dog is low then we get the lacy effect for the reason that the rate of feed is greater than the delivery speed”.
- This system is useful for Stretching & gathering of fabric.
Classification Of Sewing Machines
The job of a sewing machine is always to create stitches, either to hold multiple pieces of cloth together to decorate the fabric or to create a garment or accessory.
The way that the sewing machine accomplishes this task determines its classification.
Mechanical Sewing Machines
Mechanical sewing machines have been around for more than a century. Previously, models were power-driven, when the seamstress would pump a treadle or foot pedal. Modern machines are powered electrically.
Most sewing machines offer a straight stitch; while some do include zigzag or other specialty stitches.
The manual sewing machine uses either a rotary stitching system or an oscillating shuttle.
Electronic Sewing Machines
Electronic sewing machines offer an extensive range of stitches which are not available on a manual sewing machine.
A collection of buttons or digital controls determines the kind of stitch the machine will implement.
Several stitches are decorative and are used for embroidery type applications.
These sewing machines can also be used for mending and regular stitching applications.
Computer-Controlled Sewing Machines
Assisted or Computer-controlled sewing machines are among the most up to date add-ons to the sewing machine Computer-controlled sewing machines are usually used for embroidery.
Embroidery patterns can be developed on a computer, with the use of particular software and then loaded into the sewing machine through a memory card.
These sewing machines can also be used for regular sewing tasks, like stitching and mending.
1. Button sew Machines
The variables in button sewing machines are the size and shape of the button that determines the design of the button clamp, the disposition, and the number of the holes.
The type of stitching where there are four holes (this may be parallel or crossover– known as ‘swiss kiss’), whether the button has a sewn neck or shank, the stitch style (single thread chain stitch or lock stitch), and the number of stitches.
Buttons may have a shank on the back or maybe flat with two or four holes.
The machine sews the button, wraps the threaded shank, and secures the stitching by passing the last not many stitches through the thread of the shank.
The front edge of the garment is offered folded to the needle so that the least amount of stitching appears on the reverse side.
On the fundamental machines sewing, lock stitch two or four hole but lock stitch or chain stitch, the prerequisite for the operator to position the button in the clamp can be avoided, where long runs justify it, by using a hopper feed which automatically feeds the buttons to the clamp at the needlepoint.
The figure shows Brother Juki Jexx button sewing machine which has features like high productivity, computer control, eco-friendly power saving, removal of oil stains.
2. Buttonhole Machine
These arrive in a range of types, according to the kind of buttonhole desired on the garment.
The simplest buttonholes are used on shirts, blouses and other lightweight garments; more complex buttonholes are used on heavier tailored garments. An example of a buttonhole machine is in Figure.
The variables in buttonhole machines are the form and size of the buttonhole, the stitch bight, the stitch type (lock stitch or single- or two-thread chain stitch), the stitch density if the buttonhole is cut before or after sewing, and the presence or absence of a gimp.
The Choice Between Different Types of Stitches
The preference between chain stitch and lock stitch is affected by the protective requirements of the hole, the finished look required and the comparative costs involved (both capital and operating costs).
In broad-spectrum, buttonholes on tailored outerwear make use of a two-thread chain stitch of the 400 class.
The simpler shape of a buttonhole on shirts and other lightweight garments is frequently sewn with single thread chain stitch.
Increasing use is being made of lock stitch buttonhole sewing to give greater security to these types of garment.
Comparison Between Cut Before and Cut After Machines
The preference between cut-before and cut-after machines applies principally to buttonholes in tailored outerwear.
The benefit of cut before buttonholes is a neat appearance with the thread covering the raw edges of the hole effectively.
The disadvantages are that once the sewing cycle has started, the place of the hole cannot be changed.
The advantages of cut-after buttonholes are that the edge of the fabric gives some protection to the thread; the fabric is more stable during sewing.
The main disadvantage relates to the finished look of the buttonhole, with the cut ends of fibres protruding between the stitches; the worst appearance is on the fronts of jackets with a dark colored outer fabric and light colored interlining.
The figure shows the buttonhole machine, which has some features like perfect sewing finishes, high productivity, environmentally conscious, computer controlled.
3. Bar Tack Machine
A bar tack machine can sew strongly within a few lengths cyclically. At foremost tack stitch (1-2 cm) is done and then in opposite cover stitch (zigzag) is done on the tack stitch.
The variables are the number of covering stitches and number of tacking stitches.
These machines sew a number of stitches across the point to be reinforced and then sew covering stitches over and at right angles to the first stitches.
Distinctive uses are reinforcing the ends of pocket openings and the bottoms of flies, closing the ends of buttonholes, and sewing on belt loops.
4. Blind Stitch
A blind stitch in sewing is a method of joining two pieces of fabric so that the stitching thread is invisible, or nearly invisible. There are several techniques for creating a blind stitch by hand sewing.
A common technique used to create a hem, or “blind hem”, hide the stitches on both sides of the garment. The sewer catches only a few threads of the fabric each time the needle is pulled through the fabric.
Other techniques hide the stitch within the folds of the fabric so that the thread is only visible when the folded material is pulled away.
A slip stitch or catch stitch can be used to create the blind stitch, except that they are worked inside the hem, 1⁄8 to 1⁄4 inch (3.2 to 6.4 mm) away from the edge of the hem fabric.
Blind Stitch Machine Working
The stitch produced by this machine in the fabric is not shown from the face side and so this is called blind stitch machine.
Usually, a curved needle is used on this machine as it can penetrate in the fabric partially. The needle comes out from the side of the fabric through which it penetrated.
Again in maximum blind stitch machine, optional skip device is attested by which it is possible to penetrate the outside layer after one or two stitches.
The speed of this type of machine is up to 2500 SPM and the stitch length can be 3 to 8 mm long. Usually, one thread is used to make the stitch but two threads may also be used.
In the case of two threads blind stitch, it is safe from opening. Mainly for attaching hemming or facing this machine is used.
JC-9330 Blind Stitch Industrial Sewing Machine
The 9330 is suitable for sewing thin to medium-thickness materials. The machine produces stable seams at high sewing speeds of up to 3,000rpm.
Because the stitch tension can be easily adjusted, changing from one type of material to another can be carried out quickly
- High-speed sewing up to a maximum of 3,000rpm .
- One-touch switching between loose and tight seams.
- Spring pressure of the cloth retainer can be adjusted easily with a lever .
- The clearance between the needle and looper point can be easily lever-adjusted when changing the needle count.
- A double-tension mechanism offers superb sewing stability.
- Fine adjustments to stitch depth can be made using a dial .
- Change quickly from non-skip to skip stitches and back again at the touch of a dial.
- Pushbutton-type sewing pitch adjustment.