- 1 Definition Of Technical Textile
- 2 Types Of Technical Textiles
- 3 Applications Of Technical Textiles Based On Their Classification:
- 4 Conclusion
Definition Of Technical Textile
Technical Textiles is defined as , ‘Textile material and products manufactured primarily for their technical and performance properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative properties/ characteristics.’
From above definition, we can conclude that technical textiles product no more required to be decorated/ornamented. There is huge difference between conventional textile and technical textiles products.
Types Of Technical Textiles
The two worldwide International organizations who arrange an international exhibition for technical textiles are:
- Messe Frankfurt of Germany.
- Ossoka of Japan.
Has classified technical textiles in twelve groups are as follows:
- A- Agro Tech.
- B- Build Tech.
- C- Cloth Tech.
- G- Geo-Tech.
- H- Home-Tech.
- I- Indu Tech.
- M- Medi Tech.
- M- Mobi Tech.
- O- Okeo Tech.
- P- Pack Tech.
- P- Pro Tech.
- S- Sports Tech.
Applications Of Technical Textiles Based On Their Classification:
1 Agro Tech
Any textile material manufactured for agricultural purpose is called as agro-tech.
Also, these fibers have density 0.9 due to which this fishing net doesn’t get heavier when removed from water also the life of these fishing nets is quite long the ropes used in fishing industry are manufactured from polypropylene, or ethylene due to above reasons only.
In this industry shed nets are used depending upon the requirement of sunlight ton plants, the shed nets are selected which are available in the range of 50% to 90%.
The number Indicate the amount of sunlight controlled by shed net. That means if 90% of shed net is used only 10% of sunlight is allowed to reach the ground.
Due to this in the horticulture industry, we can control both humidity and sunlight in the plant.
- Weed Control
Polypropylene roles are used in agriculture fields to control the growth of unwanted grass which is called as a weed.
A huge amount of revenue is spending on removing these weeds, which is an economic loss to the farmer.
But if weed control sheets are laid in the field only those plants will grow through holes provided which farmer plants.
The advantage of polypropylene is that it controls the rate of evaporation of water as well as totally stops the growth of weed.
- SAP Sheets
A SAP sheet is laid below 30cm from the surface and over it, the soil is spread. When excess water is there the SAP molecules will absorb 110 times water of its own weight and retain the water itself.
When the heat of sunlight reaches this molecule the water evaporates and this water is available to plants planted over it. This system prevents frequent watering to plants.
2 Build Tech
Any textile material i.e. fibers, yarn, rope, fabrics which knowingly manufactured for building purpose is called as build tech.
Textiles are used in many ways in the construction of building both permanent and temporary dams, bridges, tunnels, roads a closely related but distinct area of use in geotextiles by civil engineering sector.
Temporary structures such as tents are some of the most obvious and visible application of textile.
Initially, these products were used to be of heavy clothes manufactured from cotton, but now a day’s cotton is replaced by lighter, rote proof, UV proof weatherproof synthetic material.
The artificial membrane is also been used in the construction of a semi-permanent structure such as sports stadium, exhibition center etc.
Nonwoven and polyester fabric are widely used in the application were textile is used as a breathable membrane to prevent moisture penetration of wall.
fibers and textiles are also having a major role to play in sound insulation. Double wall spacer fabric can be filled between the cavity of walls to produce sound and thermal insulation structure.
In theaters, textile materials which may be woven or nonwoven are paste against the wall which absorbs sound and avoid eco effect in a hall.
In Japan carbon fibers are used as reinforced fibers for the earthquake-prone building but, its cost is high.
Now a day’s fibers like polypropylene, a polyester having staple length 6mm to 40mm are used as reinforcement
the material in concrete.
These fibers when mixed in concrete improve the strength of the structure and also the life of the structure is increased as it helps to avoid cracking of structure.
3 Cloth Tech
- Press canvas.
- Sewing Thread.
The category includes fibers, yarns, and textiles used as a technical component in the manufacturing of clothing such as sewing thread, interlinings, waddings, and insulations.
It does not include main outer and lining fabric of the garment. Nor it covers protective clothing which is discussed later.
The problem in this field is the relocation of garment manufacturing to lower cost. A country like Bangladesh, there is need to develop supply lines and marketing channel of this cloth tech material.
It is the textile material which is used under earth crust to improve soil stability, separation, reinforcement, and filtration.
Geotextiles allow the building of railway tracks and roads casting due to which the load-bearing capacity and ultimately the life of structure increases.
The Geotextiles are also helpful in the construction of dams, Sea embankment, river embankment etc.
The nonwoven accounts up to 80% of Geo textiles application this is partially a question of economics due to which tremendous turnover takes place.
The Geo textiles are available in such as woven, nonwoven, knitted structures; nets membrane etc manufactured from various fibers both natural and artificial and even in some special cases high-performance fibers are used.
5 Home Tech
- Home cushion.
- Dust bags, dust covers.
The various applications of home textiles as mentioned above are curtains now a day’s a synthetic material is used for curtain fabrics the only desired property from curtain fabric is dyed and printed pigment should have light resistance.
Special nano finishes are also given to keep curtains dust proof, door mattress manufactured from yarn is usually e.g. apart from this thick nonwoven structure are widely used for above purpose.
The dust bags used in whole hold vacuum cleaners manufactured from non-woven fabric helps to separate dust and clean air.
Dust covers which are manufactured by using grey fabric which is another e.g. of home tech. Which is spread over the household things to protect it from dust when we leave the house for a long time?
Carpets or tufted fabrics are another e.g. of home tech product which is usually used for improving the aesthetic feel of the living room.
6 Indu Tech
The industrial products and components used directly in industrial applications such as filters (air & fuel) conveyor belts, brake shoe liners, circuit boards, seals, gas kit etc.
7 Medi Tech
There is the largest use of textile in the medical field. These are divided into four groups:-
a) Non-implantable: Material such as the bandage, orthopedic support, plasters etc.
b) Implantable material: Those materials which are in planted in the human body are called as Implantable medical textiles. They are artificial ligaments, veins, artery, hernia sheets, sutures, hip joints, artificial elbows etc.
A biodegradable fiber which is used to manufacture to join joints which remain in the body in given time and it is disposed of when its function is over.
c) Extracorporeal: The extra corporeal material is dialysis equipment, artificial lever etc. In case of kidney failure, the urine from blood is not separated which may affect adversely on the heart of a patient.
Artificial kidney i.e. dialysis machine separates the unwanted fluid from blood with the help of hollow polyester fiber.
d) Hygienic products: All those products which are used for avoiding cross infections come under hygienic products. They are OT garments, surgical caps, gowns, face mask, gloves, bed sheet pillow covers, adult sanitary
Even with the help of tissue engineering human organs such as ears, nose, soft tissues, fingers, can be developed in the laboratory by using some of the textile fibers.
8 Mobi Tech
The product range from carpeting of vehicle, tires, seat covers, seat belts, reinforcement for civil and military air craft’s body, wings and engine components etc.
Now a day high-performance fibers such as ultra high molecular weight polyethylene are used because it is having low density 0.9 due to which it easily floats on water surface also there is no adverse effect of salt water on this fiber.
The strength of this fiber is 7 times stronger than steel. A part from this the other uses are as follows:-
- Seat covers.
- Protective lining over wires.
- Air bags.
- Seat belts.
- Sound Proof engine.
9 Okeo Tech
This material is used for protection of environment and ecology. The products are those which are used for filtration of toxic gases and waste water filtration media.
An example of these is when the waste of sugar industry is drained out it has to be filtered and then drained to the water resources, but it is not done properly it causes harm to ecological system of water sources.
The other examples are dumping grounds outside the cities, during rainy season water drains through the waste material dumped and it pollutes the water resources to avoid this in foreign countries a trench is dug and in it high-density polypropylene is laid and over it waste is dumped and once this trench is filled up it is covered with soil and buried under ground.
10 Pack Tech
Any textile material which is manufactured for packing purpose which has to fulfill the requirement of packing is called as pack tech.
Pack Tech includes bags and sacks traditionally made from cotton, flax, and jute but now a day’s bags are made from polypropylene which is strong and cheap.
These are used for efficient handling, storage and distribution of powder or granules materials like sugar, fertilizer, cement, flour, dye stuff etc.
The other uses of open width packing material are polypropylene fabric used for packing of roles of grey fabric which has to be transferred from grey weaving department to process house.
For transportation of vegetables warp knitted polypropylene bags are used.
For the specific purpose of storage of food grains like soya been, ground nuts etc. Which needs air ventilations jute bags is preferred.
A technical textiles fabric manufactured for fulfilling the needs of protective technical textile is called as pro tech. E.g. are as follows:-
The various textile material used in the protection of human being and in movable properties all are accounted in pro tech.
Various jackets used to protect the human being from the harsh atmospheric condition, bullet proof jackets used by military persons various gloves used in industries like foundry, oil industry or even workshops.
The face mask and aprons used in chemical industry. The different types of suits used by soldiers who are placed in various atmospheric conditions such as forest, desert, and higher altitudes snow suits.
These all fabrics which will require being camouflage property because it has to hidden from a distance.
12 Sports Tech
The various products manufactured to fulfil the requirement of sports come under the broad heading of sports tech.
a) Playing stuffs.
b) Nets used in various games such as football, table tennis, cricket for practice etc.
c) Protective hand gloves used in various games, safety pads, helmets, playing equipments like racket, frames of bicycle which is manufactured from carbon fiber, which is lighter in weight but have high strength. Panel of F1 cars which is reinforced with glass Panel of F1 cars which is reinforced with glass fiber with both fibers i.e. carbon and glass have density lower than steel but higher strength.
There is a huge scope of technical textiles in the textiles market in India which are produced by technical textiles industries.
The technical textiles industry has made a huge hike in the developed production of fabric manufacturing.