A word textile is derived from a Latin word “Textiles” meaning ‘Woven from textile material’. A textile is a product which is composed of fibrous material (Either natural or synthetic fibre).
Basics of Textiles
1. Textile Fibres
The basic raw material of textile is ‘fibre’. Fibre is a textile material which is characterized by its various properties like length, fineness, colour, strength, etc.
Fibre is the substance which is very small in diameter in relation to their length. Fibres may be natural or synthetic (Man-Made Fibres).
Natural fibres are those which are obtained from natural sources such as cotton, jute (Vegetable Origin), wool, silk (Animal Origin), asbestos (Mineral Origin) etc.
The various properties of these fibres depend on from which origin they are obtained. As the name itself indicates these fibres are made by man to obtain the various properties inherent in the fibre for the purpose of the particular application.
These synthetic fibres are manufactured by the process of polymerization of various monomers. Synthetic fibres are polyester, nylon, polypropylene, etc.
2. Textile Yarn or Filament
Yarn or filament is the second smallest element after fibre. The yarn is a continuous strand of fibres where the fibres are twisted together to form the continuous strand with desirable strength.
The yarn is made up of staple fibres either natural or synthetic fibre. Yarn can be produced by various methods such as ring spinning, open end spinning, air jet spinning etc.
Whereas a monofilament is just one single filament (Fibre) that is usually not twisted. Filaments are made by taking the single mono-filament grouping them together and then twisting or air entangling them to make them workable.
The filaments are made up of synthetic material such as petrochemicals. There are some filaments manufactured from natural cellulose such as rayon, modal & lyocell. These kinds of filaments are called as ‘regenerated filaments’.
3. Cloth or Textiles (Fabric)
Yarns or filaments are further processed to produce clothes (fabric) or textile products, generally by processes such as weaving, knitting, braiding, crocheting etc.
Fabrics have various applications not only for apparel purpose but also used for curtains, bed linens, industrial applications, etc. Fabrics can be woven or knitted, braided, etc.
Sometimes fabrics are also manufactured directly from fibres by processes such as non-woven, felting, fusing etc. which are mainly used for other than apparel purposes.
Woven fabrics manufactured by interlacement of two sets of yarn in definite order. Whereas knitted fabrics manufactured by inter-meshing or interloping of loops of yarn. Braided fabrics are similar to woven fabrics formed by three or more sets.
Non-woven fabrics are manufactured by bonding of fibres by means of chemical, mechanical, thermal(heat), or by solvent treatment. The felting & fusing are the types of nonwoven production.