- 1 Introduction To Carbon Fibre
- 2 The Manufacturing Process Of Carbon Fibre
- 3 Applications of Carbon fibre
- 3.1 Carbon fibre in Aviation & Aerospace
- 3.2 Application Of Carbon Fibre In Building & Civil Engineering
- 3.3 Carbon Fibre In Automobile Field
- 3.4 Carbon Fibre In Sports Equipment
- 3.5 Carbon fibre used in following Sports equipment: (source: Google)
- 3.6 Carbon Fibre In Pole Vault
- 3.7 Use Of Carbon Fibre In Medical & Science Fields
- 3.8 Application To Environment & Energy Fields
- 4 Some other uses of carbon fiber
- 5 Conclusion:
Carbon fibre is an important Textile fibre and can be defined as ” A strong fibre of nearly pure carbon, made by subjecting various organic raw materials to high temperature. The development of carbon fibres has been a distinct achievement in the progress of high-performance fibres.
The term carbon fibre refers to materials (filaments, yarns, roving) consisting of at least 92% (mass fraction) carbon, usually in the non-graphitic state. Another type of carbon fiber is commonly known as “graphite fiber”. Graphite fibers are those which have been heated to higher temperatures, often above 2500deg.cel. & are about 99%carbon. Carbon fibre is used where low weight, high stiffness, high conductivity.
It is used in so many ways through your everyday life. for developing innovative products, global demand for the carbon fibres products is increasing because of the use of carbon fibre into new high valued smart and technical textile products because of the outstanding properties of carbon fibre. This paper focuses on the study of carbon fibre and different applications in the different fields.
Keywords: Carbon fiber, density, Aerospace, Turbine Blades, Constructions, Golf shaft, Pole vault, Formula-1 car, etc.
Introduction To Carbon Fibre
The existence of carbon fibre became known to mankind in 1879 when Thomas Edison took a patent for the manufacture of carbon filaments suitable for use in electric lamps. carbon fibres were commercially first developed & produced by the royal aircraft Research establishment in England in early 60’s.
Carbon fibre is described as a fibre containing at least 90 percent of carbon obtained by controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibres, the carbon fibre is manufactured in three stages, the first one is oxidative stabilization between 100-400*C depending on the type of precursors.
The second stage is Carbonisation between 700-1500*c and at final stage graphitization is done between 1500-2500*c according to the type of final fibre required.
Nowadays the carbon fibre is increasingly used for the technical application because of it’s physical, mechanical and chemical properties. mainly the carbon fibre is used in two sectors, they are high technology sector, which includes general engineering, aerospace & nuclear engineering.
And the second sector is transportation sector which includes engineering components such as rollers, bearings, cams, fan blades, gears etc, and automobile bodies. it can be also used for non-flammable cloth manufacturing.
Carbon fibers which are a new breed of high strength materials are mainly used as reinforcements in composite materials such as fibre reinforced plastics, carbon-carbon composites, carbon fibre reinforced materials, & carbon fibre reinforced cement.
Carbon fibre offers the highest specific modules & highest specific strength of all reinforcing fibres. carbon fibre composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight, and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. they are also finding applications where high temp, chemical inertness & high damping bare importantly.
Carbon fibre also has good electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity & low linear coefficient of thermal expansion. the large-scale use of carbon fibres in aircraft & aerospace is driven by maximum performance & fuel efficiency, while the cost factor & the production requirements are not critical. a balanced match between high strength & high specific stiffness makes carbon fibre undoubtedly an ideal material for aircraft structural composites.
The Manufacturing Process Of Carbon Fibre
Carbon fibres are produced by controlled oxidation and carbonization of organic precursor fibres. The organic precursor fibre used for the manufacture of carbon fibre is generally a special textile polymeric fibre that can be carbonized without melting.
The ideal requirements for a precursor are:
Among the various precursors, evaluated for manufacturing carbon fibres, only the following three precursors- are commercially successful.
3) Mesophase Pitch.
- Low density(1.8 g/cc),
- high specific strength and stiffness,
- excellent chemical stability,
- No effect of sunlight,
- excellent protection against Flame
- low coefficient of thermal expansion,
- excellent fatigue and creep behavior.
- zero percent moisture regain.
- Higher shock absorbency.
Applications of Carbon fibre
Owing to the amazing structural properties, carbon fibres are used extensively in fibre reinforced composites for the replacement of metals in the most critical applications such as aerospace, defense, nuclear technology, automobile, marine application, sports goods, civil construction, biomedical etc.
Carbon fibre in Aviation & Aerospace
Aerospace can be defined as the atmosphere & outer space considered as a whole & can be categorized as aeronautics & space flight. The Aerospace field demands material of light weight & of high rigidity.
After starting of the space race in between the superpowers, not only the robots or humans has reached successfully in space planetary orbit but also they landed on the precise geographical sites on the moon, mars & other planets.
This is possible with the combination of space science & textile services. The Aerospace materials require both construction technique (Mobitech) & safety system (protect) as their main applications are both in air and space. The Carbon fiber used in missiles, aircraft & parts like wings, landing gear, etc.
Every pound of weight savings can make a serious difference in fuel consumption. The availability of wide range of temperature, electrically charged particles, high-frequency ultraviolet radiation, micrometeoroids & lack of oxygen makes difficulties in the survival of humanity in space.
Hence there is the necessity of a system to protect a certain level of radiation, pressure & temperature encountered by astronauts & aircraft, to keep them alive in such environment which is ultimately done by application of carbon fibre with composite materials.
A balanced match between high strength & high specific stiffness makes carbon fibre undoubtedly an ideal material for aircraft structural composites. the Satellites adopt CRPF Parts.
Application Of Carbon Fibre In Building & Civil Engineering
In this field, the reinforcement of structures among others is the first area of application of carbon fibres with favored advantages of lightweight & high strength.
To increase the durability of concrete structures such as bridges by covering them with carbon fibre sheets is being recognized as an effective reinforcement measure to increase resistance against earthquakes.
Application to the reinforcement of concrete to the cables for suspension bridges As the substitute for steel frames are under serious study & CFRP is expected to be a qualified building material in the future.
Carbon Fibre In Automobile Field
As a result of increasing attention to environmental problems to design a clean car with lowest fuel consumption has become a very important objective.
To achieve this objective, car builders are making their serious efforts to develop the process to reduce car weight and fuel consumption by the use of CFRP for structural parts.The car parts like a bonnet, roof, front lip spoilers, rear diffusers, boot spoilers & even the wheels, hood are made up of carbon.
Carbon fibres also used for CNG tanks for natural gas. Cars which are becoming more and more popular now and for hydrogen tanks installed on fuel battery cars which are regarded as the environment-friendly, favorite in future. Carbon fibres are also used for high-speed railway tracks.
Carbon Fibre In Sports Equipment
with the improvements of living standards, more & more people go into all kinds of sports grounds in their spare time of busy working. as the carbon fibre composite materials with a lightweight, high strength, elastic modulus, good corrosion resistance, flexible design, easy processing, etc.
It is widely used in sports equipment & it shows its unique characteristics & advantage in terms of improving player’s performance. Because of Health & environmental issues Bicycle is accepted most opportune sports in the world, therefore Carbon fibre is adopted with mainframe materials of bicycles instead of aluminum, to reduce its weight. The running blades for paraolympic Athletes are made by carbon fibre reinforced polymers.
Golf shafts made of carbon fibres are far lighter than those made from metal, the swing speed with a given power becomes higher with carbon shafts than with mmmmetal shafts. The carbon fibre bats have become popular in Amateur baseball. golf clubs, softball bats, tennis rackets, hockey sticks, musical instruments, Racing bikes, archery arrows & bows are all products commonly manufactured with carbon fibre reinforced composites. use of carbon fibres expanded to fishing rods for small size fishes with very sensitive strikes.
Carbon fibre used in following Sports equipment: (source: Google)
Carbon Fibre In Pole Vault
Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long flexible pole which is usually made either of carbon fiber or fiberglass, as an aid to jump over a bar.
Use Of Carbon Fibre In Medical & Science Fields
Carbon fibre reinforced polymer is widely used for X-ray inspection equipment making use of its X-ray permeability. also, the CFRP is used for surgical outfits such as Artificial legs, braces utilizing its mechanical features. & also used in wheelchairs, care beds, portable slope, walking sticks & prosthetic limbs.
Application To Environment & Energy Fields
Wind power generation which has become popular recently is excepted to require bigger & bigger blades to get higher production capacity for each unit. in order to support big size blades use of carbon fibre reinforcement polymer becomes vitally necessary. on the other hand, in petroleum oil industries, more & more reduction of weight is required for cables supporting off shore constructions of pipes to pump oils up with the development of deep water drilling. also in this field, the use of light weight, high strength carbon fibre reinforced polymer is under serious study. this is also attracting public attention as a potential big application field.
Application To Industrial Fields
Usage of high elastic modulus carbon fibres to make composites rollers has been also growing with the rigidity equivalent of steel achieving significant weight savings.
Some other uses of carbon fiber
- Carbon fiber Bikes: The primary use of carbon fiber for a pushbike is the frame& wheels.
- Carbon fiber helmet.
- Used in audio equipment due to good vibration damping.
- Used in oceanographic & geographic equipment.
- Used as a ceramic matrix ceramic exhaust nozzles.
- Carbon Ring.
- Carbon fiber wallet.
- Pocket knife.
- Carbon fiber guitars: For guitars, carbon fiber’s durability, sound, consistency & weight make it a very attractive option, not mention that a carbon fiber guitar looks quite simple.
Contrary to common belief, carbon is an extremely technical & smart fiber & its presence in technical textiles can’t be neglected. further, it’s range of applications can be widened by means of blending with suitable fibers for specific technical applications. Its uses in technical textiles can be explored.
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