- 1 Introduction
- 2 Importance Of Logistics
Logistics plays a very important role in the textile industry. The textile industry is handling the material in mass quantity and its production also in mass quantity. Textile mill consumes a huge amount of raw material for making the final product as well as a very large number of machines required. Material requires undergoing lots of processes.
So during the conversion of raw material to the finished product, material moves or get transferred from one department to another department, one machine to the next machine and from one floor to another so that proper handling of the material is very important.
The mill management facing the challenges of safe, efficient as well as economical material handling or transport system within the plants as well as for between the plants.
Due to improper material handling efficiency and productivity goes down and ultimately cost of manufacturing increases. That’s why logistics is very important in the mill. Management logistics is nothing but managing the handling or transfer of goods such a way that which ensures the right thing at the right place at right quantity also at right time.
Logistics plays a very important role in the supply chain; due to this logistics systems are necessary to employ in the plant. This article deals with logistics systems used in Textile unit.
What Is Logistics?
Logistics is the movement of the material or goods along with the desired information from the point of starting of the source of raw material to the point of delivery of final product to the user.
- The European committee for standardization CEN defines Logistics as –
“The planning, execution & control of the movement and placement of people, goods & of the supporting activities related to such movement & placement, within a system organized to achieve specific objectives.”
- Council of Logistics management defines Logistics as –
” The process of planning, implanting & controlling the efficient, effective flow & storage of goods, services & related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of confirming to customer requirements. “
So, Logistics is nothing but managing the flow of material between the various points from source to the consumption of material in order to fulfill the requirements of consumers. The material or goods managed through the Logistics may be of physical items such as equipment, raw material, various liquids (solutions) as well as the abstract items which may be time & information.
The management or logistics of physical items requires the combination of material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transport system, go-downs & information flow.
Logistics is a channel of the supply chain which adds the time and place utility. Now a day’s plant simulation software is available by using which the complexity of the production management can be modeled, analyzed, visualized and can be optimized.
As it is well known that in textile industry there are so many stages or steps involved to process the raw material to get the finished goods and along with that to reach the finished good to customer end within the stipulated time is also important that’s why management or Logistics plays an important role is satisfying customers requirements.
Proper logistics helps to reduce the cost of manufacturing and to increase the productivity and efficiency of overall process whereas the poor logistics leads to failure in meeting the requirements of customers which ultimately causes to suffer the business. Logistics involves all of the systems used to reach up to the end point.
This includes the trucks, storage facilities, and distribution centers. Every area has its own responsibility but there is a great dependence on these logistics systems, therefore logistics should be seen as a complete system.
The term ‘ Logistics’ express different activities which are performed during the production process, such activities are planning procurement transportation handling storage distribution of material along with the desired information.
Each and every supply chain starts with the sourcing of raw material and ends with delivering the finished product to the consumer .supply chain links many companies together like suppliers, logistics provider, vendors, and customer. Within the supply chain, there is an interchange of information and materials.
Importance Of Logistics
The purpose of Logistics is to plan, organize, coordinate and implement the bridging of the dimensions of time and space within a system. Logistics is thus one of the most important functions of the economy. This ranges from the procurement of the raw materials to their processing and to the delivery of goods to end-user.
Logistics plays an important role in achieving two main targets of any manufacturer:
- Logistics helps to achieve the target of the performance of whole manufacturing assembly by providing the right material at right time and at right place through the proper Logistics management throughout the supply chain.
- Logistics also helps to control or to fulfill the targets related to cost of the product.
For the viewpoints, there is inbound Logistics and outbound Logistics. Where inbound Logistics mainly focus on purchasing the assembly plants so that inbound textile mainly deals with the procurement of material and machines.
Where outbound Logistics focus on storing of raw material to reaching of the goods to end consumer along with the information flow.
Main Fields Of Logistics
- Procurement Logistics
- Production Logistics
- Distribution Logistics
- Disposal Logistics
1. Procurement Logistics
It is the key component in the supply chain and has an influence on the whole success of the production process. It consists of various activities such as worldwide market research planning, requirement study, manufacturing or buying decision supplier management & controlling of order.
The main focus of the procurement logistics is maximizing the efficiency of the whole supply chain by concentrating on core commences and reducing the procurement cost of the raw material which gives ultimately substantial profits while maximizing the security within the supply chain.
It is the key component in the supply chain and has an influence on the whole success of the production process. The main task of the procurement Logistics is to ensure that there is
- Sufficient raw material
- Semi-finished material
- Auxiliary material
- Wearing parts and tools
- Packing materials
In Garment industry, before starting any order taking into production there is the responsibility of procurement Logistics to check and ensure the sufficient availability of raw material like fabric, buttons, tags etc and if there is a shortage of anything then place the order to purchase it.
2. Production Logistics
The term production Logistics mainly describes or deals with Logistics or management of the material throughout the various stages and processes during the actual manufacturing within the manufacturing plant.
The main objective of production Logistics is to ensure that the each production stage is under control and at each stage or be fed with the material in the right quantity of the acceptable or right quality at right time.
The production Logistics maintains the streamline flow through the value adding process and it helps to eliminate processes which are non-value adding. Production Logistics can be used in existing manufacturing plants but it can be more effectively applied in the new plants where the plant planning can be done in such a way that Production Logistics can be optimized.
In Production plants or in manufacturing unit the end product manufacturing changes according to customer’s requirements. Whereas the end product changes, some machines are exchanged and new machines also added this gives the opportunity to improve the Production Logistics.
So that Production Logistics gives the opportunity to achieve capital efficiency and customer’s requirements.
In the case of cotton, ring spinning system either carded yarn or combed yarn is manufactured. In the case of combed yarn, the Comber preparatory machine and comber machine is required to be added in the supply chain and this gives the opportunity to production Logistics to improve the main material flow.
Material Handling In Weaving Mill
|Process||Material||Material handling equipment|
|1.||Winding cones to warping||Cones||trolleys fitted with cone holder pegs|
|2.||Warping beams to sizing||Warping beam||Warp beam carrier|
|3.||Sizing to beaming||Sized beam||Manual 2 or 4 wheeled truck, hoist|
|4.||Beaming to loom shed||Weaver’s beam||Specially designed trolleys|
|5.||Loom shed to grey inspection||Cloth beam||Specially designed trolleys|
In spinning mills, different counts are spun on the different ring frames, so that there are chances of material mixing in the intermediate process. In such cases, production Logistics plays an important role to avoid the material mixing throughout the manufacturing processes. Material mixing is prevented by using the different color carrier packages for different materials throughout the process.
Production logistics ensures that the production resources such as material, space and personnel should be utilized efficiently. This is possible by organizing logistics systems in a seamless way and synchronizing the flow of material with the manufacturing process.
Tasks of logistics systems in production department are – material planning, in house transport, storage, packaging, inventory management.
There are basically two parts of production logistics.
- Production Management.
- Inventory Management.
a) Production Management
It depends on the sales forecast and sales planning .the production schedule is decided while making the production schedule different factors are required to be considered such as, production resources and raw material availability, customer demand, available lead time etc.
Tasks of production management are-
- Transport the raw material to the production line.
- Supplying the semi-finished or intermediate product to the next stage.
- Transporting the end product to the storage and packaging.
Can Link System
Material Handling In Spinning Mill
|Sr.No.||Process||Material||Material handling equipment|
|1.||From supplier to Mill||Cotton/polyester
In the bale form
|Truck or train or ship|
|2.||From truck to store||Bale of raw material||Manual 2,3or 4 wheeled truck|
|3.||Raw material store to mixing section||Bale||Manual 2,3or 4 wheeled truck|
|4.||Mixing to blow room line||Loose cotton||Special designed trolleys or lattice or suction|
|5.||Blow room to card||Laps or loose cotton||Special designed trolleys or lattice or suction|
|Carding to draw frame||Sliver cans||Manual trolley or cans fitted Castrol wheels|
|Draw frame to speed frame||Sliver cans||Manual trolley or cans fitted Castrol wheels|
|Speed frame to ring frame||Roving bobbins||Manual trolley or cans or Specially designed trolleys|
|Ring frame doffing||Ring bobbins||Doffing trolleys|
|Ring frame to winding||Ring bobbins||Specially designed plastic trolleys|
|Winding to packing||Cones||Big size plastic trolley or special designed trolley|
Conveyor Belt For Cotton Transport
b) Inventory Management
In this controlling and recording or monitoring the stock of raw material available, finished or end product stock and ensuring that there should not be a shortage of any product.
Due to inventory management, it is able to realize the shortage of different raw materials or required materials so that production planning or schedule can be balanced without interruption in a production line or in the supply chain.
3. Distribution Logistics
It is the most important step of the logistics process. After producing the final product, it should be delivered to the customer and this task is performed under the distribution logistics.
The main task of distribution logistics is to analyze various transport modes and select the combination in a such a way that which will minimize the cost and transit time while achieving the acceptable level of reliability, capability, accessibility, and security.
Distribution Logistics is the management of the movement of the finished good or end product from the manufacturer or supplier end to consumer end. As far as Textile industry is concerned distribution Logistics is playing an important role in the decentralized sectors of textile plants.
As in spinning mill, the material gets transported from ginning center or from a distribution center in bale form. The yarn is required to be distributed or transported to the weaving preparatory plant and weaving plant.
Then from weaving plant fabric is transported to process house, where the fabric is finished & ready for end users. So ultimately the main task of Distribution Logistics is to deliver the finished products to the customer.
4. Disposal Logistics
This logistics system is mainly dealing with the handling of the waste, scrap and preventing the environmental pollution from waste. Tasks of disposed of logistics are.
- Environmental management.
- Reuse and recycling management.
- Waste management.
Disposal logistics have to dispose all waste from the different intermediate process and different types of waste should be stored separately and the waste materials which can be recycled should be handled and stored safely. So that their properties do not get are mainly hampered.
There two ways of disposing of waste materials.
- By Recycling.
- By Reusing.
In the case of recycling plastic films and cardboards used for packaging can be recycled. For recycling the logistics has to place several waste containers at every place where waste is generated and for recycling, it is important that different types of material are separated.
In the case of reuse, the waste material is handled carefully and safely so that it can be used for the reuse for the same purpose.
For example, the fabric is supplied to the garment industry on coils. These coils can be used for several times ultimately this reduces the inventory and packaging cost to the certain extent.
The waste material apart from reusable and recycling waste has to be disposed of so that sorting of the waste according to the way of disposal is very important.
From all the above discussion it can be confidently concluded that Logistics must be used in the supply chain.
It plays a very important role in trouble free material movement with maintaining streamline flow of material through the supply chain.
The absence of Logistics management leads to improper material flow through different processes which decrease the efficiency and productivity & ultimately leads to increase in manufacturing cost of the product.
Along with this, due to improper material handling there are also chances of material mixing which leads to the generation of hard waste.
So that it is very difficult to ensure that all the processes are under control.but whereas if the proper logistics management system is implemented then the continuous movement of material in the desired path can be ensured.
which increases the efficiency and productivity and helps to achieve the targets related to cost of the product.
Proper logistics also prevents the hard waste which is may be due to the material mixing as well as the safety of material during movement is also can be ensured with proper logistics.
So that logistics plays an essential role in the supply chain to achieve the goals like customers satisfaction, production optimization, waste reduction and streamline flow throughout the processes.
- Khanna, O. P., (2009), Material Handling, Industrial Engineering, and Management,
Published by Dhanpat Rai Publications(P) Ltd. New Delhi, pp 25.1 – 25.14
- Material Handling & Storage Equipment, Rabatex, Industries, Gujarat,
equipment -Assessed on 02.06.13
- http://www.frontierpolymers.com . -Assessed on 02.06.13
- A study on materials handling in spinning mills, The Indian Textile Journal,
- International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences
- www.wiki/logistics systems