- 1 Introduction To Textile Testing & Quality Control
- 2 Objects of Testing
- 3 Importance Of Textile Testing
- 4 Raw Material Testing
- 5 Quality control
- 6 Conclusion
- 7 References
Textile Testing is an art, technique or process of determination of different properties of textile materials with the help of testing instruments available in testing laboratory.
Not need to say that in the competitive market, quality plays an important role. There are many customers ready to pay more for ‘quality’ which ensures the better performance of the product. Therefore it is become necessary to control the quality of the product manufactured. For this purpose, many test methods and testing instruments are developed for physical test. By testing the product we obtain values of quality related variables of the textile product.
Analyzing these values with standard norms, we can control the quality. Testing is not only done at the final stage of manufacturing but also during different intermediate stages of processing. As raw material cost contributes 50 to 55% of total manufacturing cost, it is most important to test raw material for their properties before go to processing.
Introduction To Textile Testing & Quality Control
Though textile testing and quality control is a costly process, it is necessary to test textile product for their quality. Testing process starts from the raw material itself. Initially, standards of certain quality are fixed for the particular end product and accordingly, the product is manufactured.
During manufacturing product is testing is done and obtained values are compared with standards and quality control is done. By testing and controlling the quality of the textile product we can reduce the cost of production, as we are reducing variation in manufactured product, reducing the waste and rework, improving efficiency and increase productivity. Testing is the process or procedure to determine the quality of a product.
Objects of Testing
Testing is nothing but the process to verify behavior or properties of fiber, yarn and fabric or any other material. Hence the main objects of testing can be listed as follows,
- Raw Material Selection.
- Process Control.
- Process Development.
- Specification Tests.
Raw Material Selection
This is a primary goal of testing. The raw material used for spinning is fibre for weaving is yarn and for finishing is fabric. Sometimes these raw materials are having various faults which will cause problems in respected processes so that it is necessary to ensure the smooth running of processes, therefore, unsuitable materials are rejected. This can be ensured by physical testing of raw material.
Testing acts like a bridge for the researchers. Testing helps them to prove or to challenge their results. One can also apply for the patent with the help of testing. This is one of the objects of testing.
Process control is an integral stage of textile manufacture; it involves controlling and predicting process variables such as time, temperature, pH, streaks and broken filaments. Using process control, therefore, reduces any defects and thereby reduces waste, minimizes costs and reduces the environmental impact. If process control is not there then it will directly affect productivity and quality of the product.
By testing any processed product we can also do developments in that process. The existing or conventional process can be developed only because of testing is possible so that this is one of the objects of textile testing.
These types of tests are purposely carried out for special types of materials to check their strengths and weaknesses. Specifications are framed & the materials are subjected to test to prove whether they fall within the limits allowed in the specifications.
Importance Of Textile Testing
The Importance of textile testing can give as follows,
- Textile testing is mainly used to determine the various properties of a textile material.
- To meet consumer’s demand.
- Improve the quality of a product.
- To have positive control of the process or technique.
- Textile testing is also used for research and development purpose.
This is the importance of textile testing so that we can improve the quality and productivity of the department.
Raw Material Testing
Raw material directly affects the quality of final product hence it is necessary to test the raw material first. The raw material used for spinning is fiber for weaving is yarn and for garments is fabric like this raw material is changes according to process requirements.
In fiber testing, there are various properties of fiber have to be checked according to an end product. Mainly fiber testing is carried out in spinning and nonwoven departments.
- Staple length.
- Fibre fineness.
- Fibre Friction.
- Short fibre %.
- Trash content, etc.
Above properties of fibers are mainly tested on AFIS & HVI machines.
The yarn is raw material for fabric production so it becomes necessary to test the yarn for particular required fabric production. Parameters of yarn tested mainly are,
- Single yarn strength
- Lea strength
- Moisture regain.
- Twist measurement.
- Yarn elongation.
This property of yarn is tested on instruments like Instron, Uster, yarn hairiness tester, friction tester, Tensolab, etc.
Fabric Testing (Woven, Knitted & Nonwoven)
Our ultimate aim is to achieve optimum quality fabric. So to check whether the quality is achieved or not testing of fabric is done.
- Tensile strength.
- Pilling tendency.
- Drape ability or hanging property.
- Moisture %.
- Cover factor.
- Crease recovery and crease resistance.
- Air permeability.
- Shrinkage, etc.
All these testing is done after conditioning of material and in standard atmospheric conditions.
Definition of Quality can be like this, particular standard of product which satisfies the costumers need. For this, testing of the product is done and parameters of that product are verified and maintained in given tolerance limit of standards. This process is called as quality control.
For controlling the quality generally, two methods are used,
- Online quality control method
- Offline quality control method
Online quality control
In this method quality control is done without stopping production. So that Production and efficiency not get hampered. Fault detection and corrective action are taken in running condition of a machine which need not stop the machine.
Offline quality control
In this method production is stopped to take the sample of the running product and testing is done accordingly. Corrective actions are carried out according to the result obtained by comparing test results with standard norms.
Quality control is not a single step procedure, it is a multi-step procedure in which following steps are carried out
- Sample testing.
- Analysis of result.
- Corrective action according to results from the analysis.
To obtain a quality end product these steps must be carried out on textile material which is to be processed.
Quality control can be affected by –
- Material used
Above things should be work proper to achieve a quality of the textile product.
Testing and quality control is the essential thing in textile without which we cannot give the performance assurance of textile product. Though it helps to assure performance, it is necessary to do the testing and control of quality very carefully and required skilled workers. So that quality of manufactured textile product can meet the standard norms and satisfy the customer’s need.
1. Textile Testing & Quality Control by Md.Azmir Latif, M.Engr. (Textile)
2. Textile testing methods by Mr. Sunil Talekar.
3. An overview of quality & quality control in Textile Industry by Akter Hossain, B.Sc.in Textile Technology, Daffodil International University.
4. Textile Testing by Amit Kumar.
5. Fibre Testing Procedure by International Embridary, on March 13,2009
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