- 1 Introduction
- 1.1 Tools And Gauges Used For Machine Setting
- 1.1.1 Tarp Gauge
- 1.1.2 Nilometer
- 1.1.3 Trumpet Gauge
- 1.1.4 Bearing Vibration Tester
- 1.1.5 Traveller Stretch Tester
- 1.1.6 BTRA Cot Diameter Measuring Gauge
- 1.1.7 Roller Eccentricity Tester
- 1.1.8 Spindle Eccentricity Tester
- 1.1.9 Top Arm Levelling Gauge
- 1.1.10 Stroboscope
- 1.1.11 Tachometer
- 1.1.12 Level Bottle
- 1.1.13 Hardness Tester
- 1.1.14 Vernier Caliper
- 1.1 Tools And Gauges Used For Machine Setting
- 2 Equipment Used For Testing Various Properties Of Fiber, Yarn & Fabric
Textile is a very fine process. For this purpose, the machine should be in proper working condition with corresponding suitable settings. The setting of the textile machines is carried out by tools and gauges, some of them are discussed further. Right tool at the right place for right purpose with good handling should be done to maintain the machine in standard condition.
Similarly, to check fiber, yarn and fabric properties modern testing equipment play the vital role. This testing equipment should be used with proper calibration and in proper condition.
Tools And Gauges Used For Machine Setting
It is an instrument used to measure pressure acting on a top roller of Ring frame and speed frame machine. The top arm pressure is applied to stainless steel i.e. middle part of gauge, due to which it bends. The deflection caused is measured by sensitive means. Pressure measured is indicated on a dial in Kilograms.
Nilometer performs a similar function like Tarp gauge. It is used to measure top roller pressure in draw frame and comber. It is possible to measure actual load obtained at each nip of roller system. The load is applied to a special steel shaft. Deflection caused is magnified and measured. Measurement is indicated on the dial indicator.
This gauge has six hardened and ground pins mounted on the hexagonal common central support. Diameters of those pins are 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 mm. It is suitable to measure dimensions of trumpet hole.
Bearing Vibration Tester
It is also known as Industrial Stethoscope. It is used to test the condition of bearings. It is placed on the stationary area nearer to bearings. If the vibration is very smooth then it is in good condition. If there is any obstruction in vibration, then it has to be considered that there is something went wrong with the bearings.
Traveller Stretch Tester
This instrument is used to test hardness and strength of traveler. The traveler, of which strength is to be checked, is held in jaws of the tester. Then the distance between jaws increased with the help of side roller and the reading at which traveler breaks it is the strength.
BTRA Cot Diameter Measuring Gauge
This gauge is used to measure cot diameter. It has read on its surface as 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 mm.
Roller Eccentricity Tester
It is used to check eccentricity level of bottom drafting roller. The measurement is indicated by the dial indicator.
Spindle Eccentricity Tester
This tester is used to detect trueness of the Ring frame spindle. It consists three dial indicators and probes of the dial are made to touch spindle surface.
Top Arm Levelling Gauge
Top arm gauge is used to level top arm uniquely. It has the positive and negative scale on its right top corner.
The stroboscope is an instrument used to see the moving object to be slow-moving or stationary. It consists either a rotating disc with slot or holes or lamp such as a flash tube which produces brief repetitive flashes of light. Usually, the rate of stroboscope can be adjusted to different frequencies.
When a rotating or vibrating object is observed by the stroboscope at its vibrating frequency, it appears stationary. The principle is used for study of rotating, reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating objects.
A tachometer is an instrument used to measure the rotational speed of a shaft or disk as in a motor or other machine. The device displays revolution per minute (RPM) on the calibrated analog dial. But nowadays digital displays are taking place of analog dial.
This instrument is designed to decide whether the surfaces are horizontal or vertical. It has a glass filled with alcohol spirit. While checking surface level, the instrument is placed on surface and tube position is noted then rotated by 1800 and kept on the same position; then only it is decided whether the surface is vertical or horizontal.
The hardness of cots plays a very important role in gripping of fiber. It also affects the yarn properties like mass uniformity, strength, hairiness, elongation, imperfection index, unevenness. For checking the hardness of roller cots generally, spring-loaded Durometer.
Shore A Durometer is used to measure the hardness of soft solid rubber cots. There is another Durometer also like shore D Durometer, which is used to check the hardness of rubber containing ebonite. This Durometer is used with the tolerance of 5.
The accuracy of measurement can be increased by preferring difference between two scales or divisions which are slightly different in size. The vernier caliper is used for measuring roller diameters, for the setting between bottom rollers of Ringframe, etc.
Equipment Used For Testing Various Properties Of Fiber, Yarn & Fabric
1. Fiber Testing Equipment
- Comb Sorter
It works on end aligned principle. This instrument is used to produce staple diagram for short fibers up to 100 mm length. The staple length decided by this instrument decides the roller setting in drafting system, a speed of opening roller, noil extraction percentage in comber, optimization of twist in Ring frame. With the help of comb, sorter mean length, effective length, short fiber % is decided.
- Fiber Tensolab
This is an electronic single fiber strength tester used for both natural as well as synthetic fibers. As shown in fig. below, for example, Mesdan Tensolab has specification as a 500cN load cell, 0.5 class accuracy, traction speed 0.001 to 1000 mm/ min & 300 mm stroke. UNI EN 12751, ISO 3060, BS 3411, ASTM D1445 etc. standards are used.
It decides the micronaire value of cotton fiber. Micronaire is nothing but the combined index of maturity & fiber fineness. For this purpose, Air Flow instrument is used. The Air Flow instrument can also be used to decide fineness of wool fiber.
2. Yarn Testing Equipment
- Electronic Wrap Reel
This instrument is used to make yarn lea of predetermined length, for the purpose of deciding count of a particular yarn. It consists of automatic stop after preset length is obtained.
- Twist Tester
There are two types of twist tester hand operated & electronic. The twist tester is used to measure twist o single and plied yarn (s/z). As shown in fig. below distance between clamps is adjustable. This works on principle untwist/ retwist method.
- Single Yarn Strength Tester
In this instrument strength of single yarn is measured with elongation percentage. This is suitable for testing of all types of materials. Adjustable distance ranges from 50 to 500 mm.
- Evenness Tester
This tester is used to check evenness of sliver, roving, and yarn. Three different slots for each different type of strand are present in this instrument. It measures U %, IPI (thick, thin places), neps and deviation rate.
- Moisture Regain Tester
Aqua- Lab is instrument By Mesdan Lab, to check moisture regain a percentage of fibers and yarns. Variation in moisture regain may create quality problems like “barre” defects, dimensional stability problem, etc.
3. Fabric Testing Equipment
- Tensile Strength Tester (Tensolab 5000)
This instrument is a two column universal electronic strength tester. Tensolab 5000 has the maximum capacity of 50 kN which is also suitable for technical textile-like geotextile, non- woven, industrial textile, etc. This is operated at 0.5- 500 mm/ min speed.
- Abrasion & Pilling Tester (Martindale)
This instrument is suitable for all types of fabrics for checking for abrasion and pilling resistance. Martindale is an instrument with 9 positions as shown in fig. below, with single and total rotation counter.
- Bursting Tester (Burstmatic)
This is a pneumatic bursting tester used to check bursting strength woven, knitted fabric, non- woven and cardboard this instrument measure pressure required to burst the test specimen as well as it measures the extension of specimen just before bursting.
- Spray Rating Tester
This instrument is used to check the surface wetting resistance of the fabric. The fabric is taken in embroidery ring and placed with an angle to horizontal plane and water is sprayed over fabric ring.
Elmendorf is the equipment, which is useful to check the tearing strength of cloths, artificial leather, and paper. Interchangeable pendulums can be supplied having following capacities: 1600 gm, 3200 gm, and 6400 gm.
- Pneumatic Fabric Stiffness Tester
This instrument is used to check fabric stiffness accurately and quickly. It has a plunger of 1-inch diameter. It pushes the fabric through 1.5-inch diameter hole and maximum force required is recorded.
- Thickness Tester (Thickness- Lab)
Thickness- the lab is the instrument by MESADAN LAB to check the thickness of the woven, knitted, non- woven fabric, geotextiles, and leather digitally. Its reading capacity is 0 to 10 mm with 0.01 mm accuracy.
- Air Permeability Tester ( Airtronic)
Airtronic is a device by MESDAN- LAB to check the air permeability of woven, knitted, non- woven, industrial & technical textiles, artificial leather felts & papers. Air permeability is measured in mm/s or m/s or lt/min. the size of sample holders preferred is 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cm2.